Literacy in the Service of ScienceDay 1: Procedures and Academic Vocabulary Mary Kirby, ESD 123 Migrant Education Literacy Specialist Georgia Boatman, ESD 123 Regional Science Coordinator
Consensograms • Read each statement • Place your post-it above the indicator for how strongly you agree that this is happening in your school/district right now
Goals • Deepen understanding of the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts • Identify the connections between CCSS-ELA and Next Generation Science Standards • Develop awareness of academic language • Deepen knowledge of Migrant Students • Develop strategies deepening science content understanding through CCSS-ELA • Following procedures • Reading science content for understanding • Academic vocabulary
Norms of Collaboration • Pausing to allow time for thought • Paraphrasing within a pattern of pause - paraphrase - question to ensure deep listening • Putting Inquiry at the center to reveal and extend thinking • Probing to clarify • Placing ideas on the table and pulling them off / placing data and perceptions before the group • Paying attention to self and others to monitor our ways of working • Presuming positive intentions to support a non-judgmental atmosphere
Why do we have to address this? Don’t kids already know how to read before they get to me? Big Question
Increasing Specialization of Literacy Development Disciplinary Literacy • Specialized • Literacy Comprehension and Vocabulary work to keep students in the game • Intermediate Literacy Decoding, fluency, word work, comprehension Basic Literacy
“Most of the reading in college and workforce training programs is informational in structure and challenging in content.” --CCSS The Standards
Literacy Demands Change • Texts become longer. • Word complexity increases. • Sentence complexity increases. • Structural complexity increases. • Graphic representations become more important. • Conceptual challenge increases. • Texts begin to vary widely across content areas. The Challenge: What It Will Take to Get our Adolescents College and Career Ready, Time to Act, 2010.
By the time adolescent students are being challenged by disciplinary [complex] texts, literacy instruction has often evaporated. Shanahan & Shanahan. Harvard Educational Review. 78:1 Spring 2008, p 51
Three major shifts Are the standards really that different?
The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in ELA/Literacy • Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction • Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational • Regular practice with complex text and its academic language
Shift #1 Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction
Building Knowledge Through Content-rich Nonfiction – Why? • Students are required to read much less informational text in elementary and middle school. • Non-fiction makes up the vast majority of required reading in college/workplace. • Informational text is harder for students to comprehend than narrative text. • Supports students learning how to read different types of informational text.
Shift #2 Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence From Text, Both Literary and Informational
Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence from Text: Why? • Most college and workplace writing requires evidence. • Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA and Literacy in History/Social Studies Standards • Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak student performance on NAEP. • Being able to locate and deploy evidence are hallmarks of strong readers and writers.
Shift #3 Regular Practice with Complex Text and Its Academic Language
Regular Practice With Complex text and Its Academic Language: Why? • Gap between complexity of college and high school texts is huge. • What students can read, in terms of complexity, is greatest predictor of success in college ( 2006 ACT study). • Too many students are reading at too low a level. • Standards include a staircase of increasing text complexity from elementary through high school. • Standards also focus on building general academic vocabulary so critical to comprehension.
Summarizing the Shifts So what does this mean to me?
The CCSS-ELA Document Structure • 6-12 page 35 • Reading • Writing • Speaking and Listening • Language • K-5 page 10 • Reading • Foundational Skills • Writing • Speaking and Listening • Language Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects page 59 Appendices A, B, C
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for ELA • College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards – Overarching standards for each of four ELA strands that are further defined by grade-specific standards • Reading- 10 • Writing - 10 • Speaking and Listening - 6 • Language - 6
Strand Abbreviation Strand Grade Level Sub-heading
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects Key Ideas and Details Anchor Standard: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Grade 11-12 RST.11-12.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text. 9-10 RST.9-10.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. 6-8 RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. 5 RI.5.3 Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. 4 RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. 3 RI.3.3 Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. 2 RI.2.3 Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 1 RI.1.3 Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. K RI.K.3 With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
Earth Science… • Investigative Question: What is the effect of different temperature on the movement of water? • Essential Question: What is the relationship between convection currents and weather? or How are convection currents related to plate tectonics?
Convection Currents System Learning Target: • Develop an understanding that variations in temperature drive patterns of circulation-currents Success Criteria: • use a model to describe patterns of convection currents Adapted From: Next Generation Science Standards MS-ESS2-6 2
Convection Currents System • Read Procedure • What is vague to you, and what questions do you have? • What barriers do you think students might have? • What strategies did you use to understand the procedure? • How might you scaffold this for students that have language or other challenges?
Data? • The claim I am trying to find evidence for is….. • The data I need to collect is….. • I will collect it by……… What might you need to model for your students?
Guidance? • Go to it! • How much of a procedure should you explain to your students? • What do the CCSS, WA State Science Standards, and NGSS say? by Richard https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
What the Standards Say • Follow a procedure when carrying out a experiments….. (CCSS-ELA Reading #3) • Plan and carry out investigations…(NGSS SEP # 3) • Plan and conduct a scientific investigation….. (WA State Science Standards INQB) • Plan and conduct a controlled experiment….. (WA State Science Standards INQD)
Performance Expectations • MS-ESS-6: Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates. • HS-ESS2-3: Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection
Reading Purpose: Compare and contrast the information in the reading to those from other sources (your investigation) - (RST 9) How does this information compare to the lab you completed? Cite evidence from your laboratory notebook and the reading selection in your response. • Read the article using sticky note strategy • Be able to answer questions 1 OR 5, as well as 8 • Use Box and T chart to capture your evidence
Using Evidence to Write a Claim • Consider your comparisons/contrasts • Tell your claim to your partner • Explain your evidence from your investigation and from your text. • Explain WHY this piece of evidence supports your claim- this is your reasoning. • Now write your explanation based on the evidence you found
Lunch! 11:45-12:15 Be sure to find 4 Discussion Partners: Get their name, school, grade level!
Making Sense of Your Learning • In your teams: • Identify what reading strategies you used throughout this process. • Identify writing strategies. • What scaffolding did we give you?
Dig into the Literacy in Science Standards • Identify the Common Core standards you think were addressed by this activity. • What was the purpose for reading/writing? • What reading or writing strategy did you use?
The Science and Engineering Practices • Read pages 1,2,3 and Practices 6, 7 and 8 from Appendix F • Use the Note Taking Tool to answer the following questions: • How do the CCSS-ELA and the 3 practices from the Framework complement and/or support one another? • What are the implications for instruction in a science classroom experience or in a literacy classroom experience? • Find Your Discussion Partner and share your thinking.
How do you teach vocabulary? How do you choose which words to teach?
Common Core State Standards • Reading Anchor Standard #4 • Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. • Language Anchor Standard #4 • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials as appropriate. • Language Anchor Standard#5 • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. • Language Anchor Standard #6: • Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
Common Core State Standards • Reading Foundational Skills #2: • Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. • Writing Standard #2d: • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform or explain the topic.
Vocabulary • At your table, discuss the distribution of stick notes. • How is vocabulary present across the strands? • What trends do you notice in terms of how we focus vocabulary instruction?
Vocabulary knowledge is the single greatest contributor to reading comprehension and thus a strong predictor of overall academic achievement. --Kate Kinsella, Isabel Beck, Robert Marzano, Doug Fisher, et. al.
What is academic vocabulary? Thinking of words as belonging in three tiers—Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3—can help deepen and refine our understanding of academic vocabulary and help us decide which words are worth teaching.
The Importance of Selecting the “Right” Words So many words, so little time! • 310 words make up about 50% of words in text. • We often find ourselves teaching the rare words that only occur in 10% of text! • The trick is to teach the middle of the pyramid. Zeno et al., 1995
Three tiers of words Oregon Department of Education