Qualitative Research Design & Interviewing Instructor: Julian Hasford Teaching Assistant: Keith Adamson PS398 Qualitative Methods in Psychology January 27, 2009
Agenda • Feedback on Formative Evaluation • Review… • Lecture • Grounded Theory • Research Design • Glossaries: Extreme Case Sampling and Theoretical Sampling • Qualitative Research Interviews • Exercise • Form Partners and Informed Consent
Formative Evaluation Feedback • Like so far… • Guest lectures • Real life examples, video clips • Group work, discussions • TA involvement • Student presentations • Slides are clear, posted in advance • Learn other ways of doing research/psychology • Check in
Formative Evaluation Feedback • Concerns… • Work load (readings, memos) • Many concepts/theories (especially paradigms) • More details on assignments • WebCT • More time to take notes, a lot of slides, too fast • “Blocking my view!” • More visual aids • Better access to slides
Formative Evaluation Feedback • Instructor • Instructor and TA enthusiasm • Personable, approachable, engaging • Informative, easy to understand • Interactive • Less review…more review • Genuinely interest
Learning Objectives • By the end of this session, students should be able to • Identify key considerations in qualitative research design • Develop a research question • Develop an interview guide
Review • Questions? • Philosophy of Science • Theoretical Traditions • Assignments
Grounded Theory • Foundational question • What theory emerges from systematic, comparative, and grounded analysis? • Disciplinary origins • Sociology (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) • Symbolic Interactionism • Most influential tradition in qualitative research
Grounded Theory • Philosophical assumptions • Used in various paradigms • Constructivist and objectivist approaches • Knowledge created through inquiry that is grounded in the empirical world • Emphasizes rigorous, systematic, inductive/abductive methodology
Grounded Theory • Methodological approaches • Coding procedures to build theory, ratherthan test theory • Inductive analysis (Glaser) • Abduction (Strauss) • Analysis through inductive and deductive procedures • Constant comparative method • Theoretical sampling • Testing emergent concepts with additional fieldwork • Memoing
Research Design • Definition • Research design is a plan for collecting and analyzing evidence that will make it possible for the investigator to answer whatever questions he or she has posed (Ragin, 1994, p.191 as cited in Flick, 2006, p.135)
Research Design • Key Design Questions • What is the purpose/goal of the study? • What is the main research question(s)? • What are the units of analysis? • What is the conceptual/sensitizing framework? • What will be the sampling strategy? • What type/degree of control will be used? • Experimental vs. naturalistic • Standardization vs. emergence
Research Design • Key Design Questions • What types of data will be collected? • What analytic approach will be used? • How will validity and rigor be addressed? • How will ethical issues be handled?
Research Design • What is the purpose of the study? • Basic Research • Applied Research • Formative/Summative Evaluation • Action Research
Research Design • Types of Designs • Case studies • Comparative • Retrospective • Longitudinal
Research Design • What is the research question? • Theoretical orientation • Sensitizing framework (conceptual model) Empowering Workplace Characteristics Individual Characteristics (Gender) Adversity Youth Empowerment Outcomes
Empowering Workplace Characteristics Individual Characteristics (Gender) Adversity Youth Empowerment Outcomes Research Design • Sample research questions • How does adversity limit opportunities for empowerment through the workplace? • What are the workplace organizational characteristics that Black Canadian youth find empowering? • How does gender influence young Black Canadian men and women’s experiences of empowerment through the workplace?
Research Design • What is our research question?
Research Design • What sampling strategy will be used? • Random Probability • Purposeful • Convenience • Snowball/chain • Stratified purposeful • Maximum variation • Critical case • Extreme case/Intensity • Theoretical
Extreme Case Sampling Nicole Dimech and Jenny White
Definition Extreme case sampling is: A type of purposeful sampling generally used in qualitative research Singles out cases that are unusual or outstanding as opposed to simply focusing on the central tendencies of quantitative data Such as distinctive successes or notable failures (Patton, 2002) Allows for information rich data as the chosen subjects are assumed to provide a depth of information to the topic at hand (Haynes-Lawrence, 2008)
Examples from Patton (2002) Text Covey’s (1990) Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Brown’s (1987) When Battered Women Kill Peter & Waterman’s (1982) Eight Attributes of Excellent Companies
Purpose To examine the ways in which parents have successfully facilitated friendships for their sons and daughters with a disability with friends who do not have a disability
Design and Methodology Participatory Action Research (PAR) was used to define the research focus as well as throughout the entire research process Eleven children were identified as having successful relationships Children/youth varied in terms of disability classification and disabilities Ages ranged between five years old and 19 These children were identified as a result of extensive examination on literature concerning social networks and friendships among children without disabilities
Design and Methodology Continued • Successful relationships were recognized by: • Minimum 6 month on-going relationship • Both children initiate activities • They share experiences in at least two settings • No more than 18 months separate them • Individual and group interviews of the children’s parents were done to collect data • Interviews were transcribed, coded and comprehensively analyzed for themes and patterns
Findings Turnbull, Pereira and Blue-Banning (1999) classified four parent facilitating themes: Foundational Theme –based on accepting the child unconditionally Creating Opportunities – advocating for inclusion in neighbourhood schools, supporting participation in community activities, initiation and facilitating a circle of friends, and setting sibling-consistent expectations
Findings Continued Making Interpretations – encouraging others to accept the child by addressing strength and ensuring that the child has an attractive appearance in terms of grooming and clothing Making accommodations – advocating for partial participation in community activities
References Haynes-Lawrence, D. (2008). Home visitors' perceptions of teen mothers: Using qualitative research to explore labeling theory. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(12), 1386-1394. Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Robles-Pina, R. A., Defrance, E., & Cox, D. L. (2008). Self-concept, early childhood depression and school retention as predictors of adolescent depression in urban hispanic adolescents. School Psychology International, 29(4), 426-441.
References Turnbull, Ann, Lourdes Pereira, and Martha Blue-Banning. "Parents' Facilitation of Friendships Between Their Children With a Disability and Friends Without a Disability." Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 24.2 (1999): 85-99.
Theoretical Sampling Lindsay Flood Sherry Demeester
Definition Purposeful Sampling: “When information-rich cases are selected for in depth study. You can learn a great deal of issues of central importance.” (Patton, 2002)
Definition Theoretical Sampling: “Sampling on the basis of the emerging concepts, with the aim being to explore the dimensional range or varied conditions along which the properties of concepts vary” (Patton, 2002)
Example Roles and functions of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan by: Huang et Al. • Community nurses make more home visits to schizophrenics than any other health care professional. • AIM: The study aimed to understand the nursing roles and functions of public health nurses and home health nurses in Taiwan and the factors that affect nursing roles and functions of nurses that provide community mental health home visiting services.
Example con’t Design/Method • 29 community nurses (18 public health nurses and 11 home health nurses) that did home visits • Group one comprised PHNs and HHNs. Group two included clients with schizophrenia and their caretakers (16 carers and 16 clients). • Participants were selected using theoretical sampling • Data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face in-depth interviews and unstructured non-participant observations. • The constant comparative analysis continued during the three selective coding process until data was complete
Example Con’t Results • Fourteen nursing roles were identified. These roles included assessor, supporter, educator, consultant, counselor, negotiator, harmoniser, collaborator, advocate, placement coordinator, resource provider, care provider, case manager and case finder. • Negative factors that affect nursing roles: lack of knowledge, high work-load, low training and low financing Relevance: findings of this research can be used as a guide to improve psychiatric home visiting services to community-dwelling clients with schizophrenia and mental health nurses
References Huang,X., Ma, W., Shih, H., and, Li, H. (2008). Roles and fuctions of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 3030–3040. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Types of Qualitative Research Interviews • Structured (Standardized Open-Ended) • Semi-Structured (Interview Guide) • Informal Conversational • Depth • Combined
Interview Question Options • Focus of Questions • Experience and Behaviour • Opinion and Values • Feeling • Knowledge • Sensory • Background/Demographic
Interview Question Options • Question Time Frame • Sequencing Questions • Closing Questions • Wording Questions • Open ended • Non-dichotomous • Singular • Clarity
Interview Question Options • Wording Questions cont… • Avoiding “why” questions • Non-leading • Non-loaded • Sensitizing concepts
Interview Question Options • Asking Questions • Probes • Detail-oriented, Elaboration, Clarification, Contrast • Illustrative Examples • Role-Playing and Simulation Questions • Prefatory Statements/Announcements
Semi-Structured Interview By: Jennifer Newman & Ashley Johns
Semi-Structured Interview • Definition • Process by which an interviewer can gather factual information about people’s circumstances (Drever, 1995). • Collecting statements of people’s preferences and opinions while exploring in some depth their experiences, motivations and reasoning (Drever, 1995). • A general structure is set up by the interviewer where structured questions are drawn to increase optimal amount of desired information that can be gathered from interviewee through the use of prompts, probes and follow up questions. (Drever, 1995).
Semi-Structured Interview • Theoretical and Methodological Significance
Semi-Structured Interview • Example: “A semi-structured interview to assess visual hallucinations in older people” (Mosimann, et. Al, 2008) • -Background: • Objective was to develop a reliable, valid, semi-structured interview for identifying and assessing visual hallucinations in older people with eye disease and cognitive impairment. • Concern that visual hallucinations were underreported by patients and are not discovered by health professionals. • Sample included 80 older people with visual and/or cognitive impairment, 40 older people without known risks (control group)
Semi-Structured Interview • Example (Mosimann, et. Al., 2008). -Design: Section 1) - Participants were administered the North East Visual Hallucinations Interview (NEVHI). - Three preliminary open-ended screening questions for hallucinations - Detailed descriptions of phenomenology. Section 2) - Participants given four multiple choice questions to assess the time contstraints of the hallucination (start, course, duration). Section 3) - Evaluate cognitive aspects of hallucinations using a five point scale. - Nine questions
Semi-Structured Interview • Example (Mosimann, et. Al., 2008). • -Findings: - The criterion, face and content validities were good and the internal consistency of screening questions for hallucinations was high (Cronbach alpha: 0.71). - NEVHI is a comprehensive assessment tool, helpful to identify the presence of visual hallucinations and to quantify cognitions, emotions and behaviours associated with hallucinations