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Combining Sentences

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  1. Combining Sentences • When is it a good idea to combine sentences? • How to combine sentences • Inserting words and phrases • Coordinating ideas • Compound subjects, verbs, and objects • Compound sentences • Subordinating ideas • Review A • Review B

  2. When is it a good ideato combine sentences? Too much of the same thing can be boring. Too many short, choppy sentences in your writing can put your reader to sleep.

  3. When is it a good ideato combine sentences? Look for ways to combine sentences when • consecutive sentences have the same subject and verb The Titanic was the largest ship of its time. The Titanic was also the most luxurious ship of its time. The Titanic was on its maiden voyage. • your sentences have the same word order, pattern, or rhythm The accident happened at night. The night was clear and cold. The date was April 14, 1912. The accidenthappened at night. The night was clear and cold. The date was April 14, 1912. The accidenthappened at night. The nightwas clear and cold. The datewas April 14, 1912.

  4. When is it a good ideato combine sentences? Do these sentences hold your attention? The sinking of the Titanic was a maritime disaster. It was one of the worst in history. The Titanic was the largest ship of its time. It was also the most luxurious ship. The Titanic was on its maiden voyage. The ship struck an iceberg. The iceberg was near Newfoundland. The accident happened on April 14, 1912. The night was clear and cold. The sinking of the Titanic, the largest and most luxurious ship of its time, was one of the worst maritime disasters in history. On the clear, cold night of April 14, 1912, the ship, which was on its maiden voyage, struck an iceberg near Newfoundland. Sentence combining makes the paragraph shorter, more precise, and more interesting. [End of Section]

  5. How to combine sentencesInserting words and phrases Combine short sentences by taking a key word from one sentence and inserting it into the other. key word Magicians guard the secrets of their tricks. Magicians closely guard the secrets of their tricks. They guard their secrets closely. closely You may have to change the form of the word. Houdini performed Houdini performed impossible escapes. seemingly impossible escapes. The escapes only seemed impossible. seemingly seemed

  6. How to combine sentencesInserting words and phrases You can also combine sentences by inserting a phrase from one sentence into another. • Prepositional Phrase The trees were bent nearly double. They were bent in the wind The trees were bent nearly double in the wind. in the wind. • Participial Phrase I was puzzled by her behavior. I asked her to explain. puzzled by her behavior Puzzled by her behavior, I asked her to explain.

  7. How to combine sentencesInserting words and phrases You can also combine sentences by inserting a phrase from one sentence into another. • Absolute Phrases The wind The wind started gusting. Constance returned home. gusting The wind gusting, Constance returned home. • Appositive Phrases Calligraphy is an elegant form of handwriting. It requires a special pen or brush. Calligraphy, an elegant form of handwriting an elegant form of handwriting, requires a special pen or brush.

  8. How to combine sentencesInserting words and phrases On Your Own Combine each pair of sentences by inserting words or phrases. Some sentences may be combined in different ways. Hints in parentheses indicate changes to word forms. 1. Natalie opened the trunk slowly. The trunk was antique. 2. She moved some papers aside. She peered deeper into the trunk. (Change moved to moving.) 3. She found the photographs. They were at the bottom of the trunk. 4. Natalie lifted the top photograph. She lifted it with care. (Change care to carefully.) [End of Section]

  9. How to combine sentencesCoordinating ideas You can also join equally important words, phrases, and clauses by using coordinating conjunctions or correlative conjunctions. words, phrases, clauses This bike needs brakes. This bike needs brakes. This bike needs brakesand a taillight. It needs a taillight. It needs a taillight. We saw the surface of the moon. We saw the surface of the moon. We saw the surface of the moonandthe rings of Saturn. We also saw the rings of Saturn. We also saw the rings of Saturn. Kris liked the jacket. Kris liked the jacket. Kris liked the jacket, butit was too expensive. It was too expensive. It was too expensive.

  10. How to combine sentencesCompound subjects, verbs, and objects You can combine sentences by making compound subjects, verbs, direct objects, or indirect objects. Step 1. Look for sentences that have the same subject, verb, or object. He plays basketball. He plays basketball. Same subject He likes baseball more. Helikes baseball more. Nick sings well. Nick singswell. Same verb Sharon singswell. Sharon sings well. I like grapefruit. I like grapefruit. Same object Matt likes grapefruit. Matt likes grapefruit.

  11. How to combine sentencesCompound subjects, verbs, and objects Step 2. Join the verbs, subjects, or objects of the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction or a correlative conjunction. IF He plays basketball. the subjects are the same, He enjoys baseball more. THEN He plays basketball but enjoys baseball more. keep the subject and join the verbs.

  12. How to combine sentencesCompound subjects, verbs, and objects Step 2. Join the verbs, subjects, or objects of the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction or a correlative conjunction. IF Nick sings well. the verbs are the same, Sharon sings well. THEN Both Nick and Sharon sing well. keep the verb and join the subjects.

  13. How to combine sentencesCompound subjects, verbs, and objects Step 2. Join the verbs, subjects, or objects of the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction or a correlative conjunction. IF the objects are the same and verbs are the same, I like grapefruit. Matt likes grapefruit. THEN keep the object and the verb and join the subjects. Matt and I like grapefruit.

  14. How to combine sentencesCompound subjects, verbs, and objects On Your Own • Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound subject, a compound verb, or a compound object. • 1. Apples grow on trees. Peaches grow on trees. • 2. My cat enjoys music. My cat does not like loud noises. • 3. Stan could write the letter. Alternatively, Frank could write the letter. • I will finish my paper tonight. I will finish my project, too. • 5. Ann went to bed early. Ann could not fall asleep. [End of Section]

  15. How to combine sentencesCompound sentences If two sentences are related and equally important, you can form a compound sentence. A compound sentence is made by joining the two sentences with • a comma and a coordinating conjunction • or a semicolon • or a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb The phone rang. The phone rang, butno one answered it. The phone rang;no one answered it. The phone rang;however,no one answered it. No one answered it.

  16. How to combine sentencesCompound sentences On Your Own Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound sentence. 1. I can’t go to practice today. I’ll be there tomorrow. 2. We could go to an early movie. We could eat dinner first and go to a later show. 3. Clouds covered the moon. He could not see the trail. 4. Our house is easy to find. It’s right on the corner. 5. Everyone had a test that day. We postponed the meeting for a week. [End of Section]

  17. How to combine sentencesSubordinating ideas When two related sentences contain ideas of unequal importance, you can make one idea subordinate to the other in a complex sentence. Independent Clause Independent Clause The whole team left the field. The band played. Independent Clause Subordinate Clause The band played while the whole team left the field. Subordinate Clause Independent Clause While the band played, the whole team left the field.

  18. How to combine sentencesSubordinating ideas There are three types of subordinate clauses: adjective, adverb, and noun clauses.Each type can replace an ordinary adjective, adverb, or noun. • Adjective • Adjective Clause We invited We invited students new students. who are new. • Adverb Clause • Adverb He awakened early. when the alarm went off. • Noun • Noun Clause She explained what was on her mind. her idea.

  19. ^ How to combine sentencesSubordinating ideas Make one sentence into an adjective clauseby replacing the subject with who, which, or that. The lighthouse is perched on a cliff. which It has stood for more than a century. Then use the adjective clause to provide information about a preceding noun or pronoun. The lighthouse, which has stood for more than a century, is perched on a cliff.

  20. How to combine sentencesSubordinating ideas Turn one sentence into an adverb clauseby adding a subordinating conjunction, such as after, although, because, if, when, or where. I didn’t really understand the movieuntilI finished the book. I didn’t really understand the movie. I finished the book. If the adverb clause begins a sentence, place a comma after it. Until I finished the book,I didn’t really understand the movie.

  21. How to combine sentencesSubordinating ideas Turn a sentence into a noun clauseby adding a word like that, how, what, who, or whoever to the beginning of the sentence. Noun clause thathe had broken his wrist. The doctor told him. He had broken his wrist. Insert the clause into another sentence just as you would an ordinary noun. Ordinary noun The doctor told himthe results. The doctor told himthat the results showed he had a broken wrist. Noun clause

  22. How to combine sentencesSubordinating ideas On Your Own • Combine each pair of sentences by turning one sentence into an adjective clause, adverb clause, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. • 1. Someone ate the eggs. I was saving them for the cookies. (adjective clause) • 2. We ate dinner. After that, we went to a movie. (adverb clause) • 3. You said. I could borrow your book tonight. (noun clause) • The girl is running for student body president. She sits behind me in class. (adjective clause) [End of Section]

  23. Review A Using all the sentence-combining skills you have learned, combine each of the following pairs of sentences. • The child gave a shout. The shout was joyful. • Carter knew. He should have studied for the exam. • Erin began the discussion. Erin is a skilled debater. • Steam rose from the pan of water. The water had just begun to boil. 5. The wood was wet from the rain. We couldn’t get the fire started. [End of Section]

  24. Review B Using all the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and rewrite the following paragraph without changing its original meaning. The Japanese comics are called manga. Manga look like American comics. They have panels and word balloons. Manga were also influenced by American animated movies. That was after World War II. Now manga appear first in magazines. Later they are collected into books. Many readers think manga are like novels. Reading manga is like reading novels. Reading manga is also like watching movies. [End of Section]

  25. The End