Kepimpinan dalam Islam 2013. KULIAH 3. Krisis kepimpinan – Perbincangan Minggu 4 Modal pemerintahan – Barat dan Dunia Islam Sekarang Sumber Perlembagaan . Modalities of Governance in Western Secular State. The Liberal Democratic System The Totalitarian System The Autocratic System.
Krisis kepimpinan – Perbincangan Minggu 4 Modal pemerintahan – Barat dan Dunia Islam Sekarang Sumber Perlembagaan
Modalities of Governance in Western Secular State The Liberal Democratic System The Totalitarian System The Autocratic System
Western modalities of governance, in the non-democracy system. Monarchy Military Dictators
The Liberal Democratic System It refers to a “democracy” political system or rule by the people. The government is formed by the “people choice” or chosen representatives of the people. They are accountable to the people for every state policies and actions. The elected liberal-democracy government representatives were elected to exercise decision-making power subjected to rule of law and usually moderated by a constitution. They are two types of democratic government, the Parliamentary and Presidential System and a Prime Minister being the leader of the former and President is the leader of the latter. A good example of each is the Prime Minister of Great Britain and President of the United States.
The Totalitarian System The opposite of the liberal-democratic system is the totalitarian. In this system the leader is a person with a complete control of the state. The authority of his government is total and absolute. The government has the definite control over their citizen social life as well as the economy and only one political party dominant the legitimate political activity. The ruling party regulates all government decisions and political activity and the mass media and judiciary are rigidly controlled by the government. An example of the totalitarian system is demonstrated and practiced by none other, Fidel Castro of Cuba.
The Autocratic System It is similar to the totalitarian system as regards to civil liberties and restriction on citizen’s political participants but different from the totalitarian system in a way such as, there is no specific and dominant in political ideology but the leader keep emphasizing on nationalism in his preferences. In order to enforce political obedience the leader will resort to open force and coercion. The leader and his aides are normally from the armed forces but not necessarily so as some monarchic leaders do exercise this type of power and practice Autocratic style of governance. Again the mass media and judiciary are under direct government control and rule is arbitrary with little respect to the law (legal rights) or individual rights. However, it is interesting to note that examples of this kind of system come from so called Muslim States, such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia to name a few.
Monarchy A monarchy is a form of government of the country that is ruled by a monarch either being a King, Queen, Emperor, Empress or Amir. There are two types of monarchy, an absolute and constitutional monarchy. An absolute monarchy is a form of government that has a monarch with an absolute power normally, The King or Amir will decide everything and enforced laws to his advantage. However, he does not have to follow any law or constitution. The Sultan of Brunei and Amir of Gulf States are good examples of rulers who subscribe to this Monarchy Rule. Constitutional Monarchy is a form of government that has both an executive and a monarch as heads of state and both are bounded by the country (state) laws and constitutions. However, the Monarch in this instance has no actual power in the true sense but rather as a representative in the ceremonial function of the State. Examples of constitutional monarchy are the King of Sweden and Queen of Great Britain.
Military Military’s intervention and taking over the administrations of civilian government did occur throughout history and the most recent occurrence in Thailand reflected this type of governance is well and alive and can happen anywhere at any given point of time. It also happened to Europe during the post First World War era. The growth of liberal-democracy in the West, have somewhat suppressed and prevented any kind of military resistance against the civilian government. When the military takes over the civilian government, martial law will be imposed. Military will intervene in the state politics and prohibit any political activities, to some extend took over the direct supervision of all state matters and affairs especially the economic sectors. However not all coup is seen as bad amidst the negative impact it has on any democratic state. This was reflected in the military intervention in Thailand, which has gained much support from the King and Thai citizens. Moreover the intervention which is normally bloody in nature has not spilled any blood and life of the ordinary citizens and Thai military.
Dictators Dictator is used to describe the absolute ruler (other than a King or a Queen) of a state or country which transcends to power and became a leader by the use of brut force. To keep his tight rein on power, he will appoint only his close and trusted aides to power and authority. Normally he can effectively make laws all by himself. A country that is ruled by a dictator is called a “dictatorship”. Example of a dictator is AlexandreLukashenko of Belarus.
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State It is interesting that the Qur’an does not prescribe to any hard and fast rule on the election matter and process or any mention on the duration of representations of the people in power. These are left to the discretion of the people and leaders of that particular time. What is important is the integrity of character of the chosen leader.
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State The reference of the Islamic States during the period of the Prophet (pbuh) and the four rightly-guided caliphs and the occurrence in the state of Medina. What is the Islamic modality of governance then? According to majority views, Democracy is thought to be a Western concept alien to Islam, however to the contrary Islam had long established this idea even during the Prophet’s (pbuh) reign. It was more prominent after the death of the Prophet (pbuh) when the issue of his successor was first argued. Interestingly the appointment of the Caliphs especially the first four had shown us that democracy was alive then and within Islam.
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State The appointment of the four caliphs demonstrated that Islam had established four different methods of selection of which syuraor consultation and consensus from the ummah were the prominent features of this democratic method to elect the head of government. As mentioned earlier in the methods of selection of the four rightly-guided caliphs and ‘in the model Muslim State of Madinah there is evidence that the ruler could claim legitimacy of power only with the consensus of the community.’ Abdul Rashid Moten and SyedSerajul Islam, 2006,p.213
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State In the Western types of governance formed in this world there are two extremes which differs, gulf apart - between democracy and non-democracy and somewhat slightly similar to each other, in a sense that they are all temporal in nature. This is due to their materialistic preferences, different ideology, social-economy structure and the usage of religion in the personal atmosphere
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State In the Islamic proposed governance, the aim is to make man lives happily and harmoniously in this world while not to disregard the main purpose of Man that is to serve Allah. In similarity for all types of governance, there is a leader to be selected within the group. This leader will serve and lead his citizens to achieve the desired goals. Democracy is well demonstrated in majority Western Secular Government and Islamic State but the difference is in the degree of practice and acceptance. The dealing with non-citizens or even citizens with different beliefs and religions also differ in Islamic State and the Western Secular Government.
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State In Islam, ‘The equality of all men before law, in which the head of the state is not exempt even vis-à-vis his subjects. The Qur’an (5:42-50, 5:66) has ordained important disposition: The non-Muslim inhabitants of the Islamic State enjoy a judicial autonomy, each community having its own tribunals, its own judges, administering its own laws in all walk of life, civil as well as penal. The Qur’an says that Jews should apply the Biblical Laws and the Christians those of the Gospel.’ http://muslim-canada.org/ch8hamid.htm#duties
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State Democracy is as much an Islamic characteristic as justice is and as agreed by Abdul Rashid Moten when he mentioned, ‘Consensus among Muslim scholars is that democracy is not incompatible with Islamic doctrine. Such Islamic concepts as consultation (shura), affirmation of community loyalty (bai’ah), consensus (ijma’), interpretation (ijtihad), public interest (maslahah), are all ingredients of Western democracy. One may also cite the legitimacy of ikhtilaf (divergence of opinions) and the ideal of tawa’zun (equilibrium) as additional proof of compatibility between democracy and Islam. The ideal of a limited government and non-hereditary elected executive equally subject to the law is central to Islamic teachings.’ Op cit, p.11
Modalities of Governance in an Islamic State And in Islam, Military intervention to take over power is definitely prohibited. However, looking at the current so called Islamic State, military do intervene and these states are not excluded from the military intervention as that had occurred in other parts of the world. Countries, like Pakistan Nigeria and others are ruled by the military even-though coup d’etat as mentioned earlier is highly prohibited in Islam. Civil and military power is not integrated in Islam.
Sources of Law in Western Secular State In the Liberal Democracy system, the source of law is from the legislature, constitution, adjudication and jurist, which all are generated from Man, himself. Contrary to the belief that man is master of his destiny and the laws derived through the thinking process are rational, it is in fact tainted with emotional and a survivor instinct to protect one’s domain or territory. The laws often then not are lopsided and bias
Sources of Law in an Islamic State Sources of law in an Islamic State are inherited from Allah’s commands and directives in His divinely-revealed book al-Qur’an. The Qur’an is the fundamental source of Islamic legal system. The other source is from Prophet (pbuh) who acted on the rule governed by Allah in his personal life and this ideal conduct of the Prophet is known as Sunnah which clarifies and explains the Qur’an. The Qur’an and Sunnah constitute the foundation and the essence of the Islamic legal system, the Shari’ah.
Leadership Quality in Citizenship The Prophet (pbuh) has mentioned that a good Muslim is the one who benefited fellow mankind the most. In other words the Prophet (pbuh) is advocating that Muslims think of others first before self in matters pertaining to this temporal world vide the good deeds and daily practice. Hence, taking this as a prerogative, Muslim leader and the masses tend to sacrifice oneself for the sake of the Nation and especially for ones religion. Citizens in an Islamic country are assured of their rights and can convey their dissatisfaction directly to the leaders.
Leadership Quality in Citizenship During Omar’s reign as the Caliph, Omar had made a slight blunder in giving an injunction against the Qur’an. The manner was about the dowry of a bride, which Omar was persuaded to fix the amount at that time as the price of the bride kept on rising and fore seeing an unhealthy trend decided to stabilize it. An old woman stood up against him saying that there is no mentioned in the Divine Law to fix the amount. Instead of being angry Omar willingly and un-relentlessly admitted he was wrong and Caliph Umar had once appeared before a subordinate judge appointed by him to answer a charge. This is the nature of the true Islamic leader where the concept Adl’ is uphold and maintained.
Leadership Quality in Citizenship The address made by Caliph Abu Bakar, aptly summarized the role of a leader and its citizen, “My fellowmen! I call God to witness. I never had any wish to hold this office; never aspired to possess it. Neither in secret nor in the open did I ever pray for it. I have agreed to bear this burden lest mischief should raise its head else, there is no pleasure in leadership. On the other hand, the burden placed on my shoulders is such as I feel have not the inherent strength to bear, and so fulfill my duties except with Divine Help. You have made me your leader, although I am in no way superior to you. Co-operate with me when I go right, correct me when I err; obey me so long as I follow the commandments of God and the Prophet; but turn away from me when I deviate.” Dr Shahibuddin Laming, 2002, pp. 191-192
An Afterthought!! A lot have been said about the difference between the principles of leadership in the Western Secular State and the Islamic State although there are also similarities. From these broad comparisons, we cannot deny the completeness of the Islamic principles of leadership resulting from divine guidance. But in the current world reality where Western democracies rule the world, it will not be appropriate to even suggest conversion to the Islamic system. After all, the Islamic leadership had its fair share of ruling the world for more than 400 years
What may be possible now is how Muslim majority states can revert back to the Islamic system of leadership. It will not be a simple process but a good start will be to do a research on the effectiveness of the current leadership of the Muslim majority states, which generally implement the Western style of democracy and to look at the khilafah system in its current context.
This is further expounded by the contemporary Muslim thinkers who have begun to redefine the concept of khalifah. What is need now is a change- a change of paradigm that is the mindset of Muslim leaders and followers alike and to draft a detailed structure of the political order vis-à-vis the Al-Quran. Abdul Rashid Moten looking at political science in an Islamic Perspective mentioned, ‘To begin with, contemporary Muslim thinkers do not treat khilafahas a historical institution to be replicated in its entirety. They idealise the rule of Khulafa’ al Rashidun as a paragon of Islamic government and society which, as IbnTaymiyah argues cannot be recreated in universalism or a universal khilafah. Instead, they accept the plurality is, by definition, non-territorial and encompasses the whole world, plurality of political units is inevitable’ Abdul Rashid Moten, 1996, p.98
“Leadership the Islamic way is the answer to good governance”. Nevertheless there are some critics, looking at the current so called Islamic States, are skeptical of this. To answer to these critics, Muslim majority states must revert back to the divine guidance by implementing the Islamic way of leadership and to implement the khalifah system as Abdul Rashid Moten clearly pointed out: ‘khalifah denotes a system which aims at the welfare of humanity through the implementation of Islamic values and principles. In short, khilafah may be defined as a socio-political system in accordance with the teachings of Islam. As AbdulHamidAbuSalayman explains: Whatever system of government the Ummah chooses for itself in order to realize its spiritual and temporal aspiration is the one that should be understood as the khilafah system, and thus deserving of the Ummah support.’ Op. cit, pp. 98-99
Minggu Hadapan Perbincangan kertas kerja Kepimpinan dalam Islam (Sesi 1) - Krisis Kepimpinan Perbincangan - Kepimpinan dalam Islam (Sesi 2) – Kegagalan Pemimpin: Apa jawapannya? Rumusan
Minggu Hadapan – Tugasan 4 Kumpulan 1 Kumpulan “Krisis Kepimpinan” 1 Kumpulan “Kegagalan Pemimpin: Apa sebabnya?” 1 Kumpulan “Kegagalan Pemimpin: Apa jawapannya?” 1 Kumpulan “Kepimpinan – Apa peranan saya”