Hope Theory & Practice in Counselling Allison Latimer & Krista Holts CAAP 6635
Kat’s experience of Hope after facing terminal illness “Hope isn’t what we think it is; it isn’t praying or wishing or hoping for miracles…For me hope was about being connected on a universal soul level…People, friends, community. Hope isn’t about getting “out” of your situation; it is spiritual. I can transcend the suffering. Hope gave me the strength to self advocate and not take no for an answer, and find whatever best possible treatment, if any, that were available to me. Hope allowed me to face each day”. -Katjana
Defining Hope Stone (1998) : “Hope is anticipation of the future, a feeling that one's troubles can end or will at least become manageable, a recognition of possibilities that lie ahead, an investment in a future that holds promise,” (p. 432) De Mello et al. (2007): “To “have hope” is to believe that a goal one yearns for is possible,” (p. 153)
Defining Hope (Jevne, 2003) “Hope is a gatekeeper to help people access their capacities. It might be described as a foundational developmental capacity. Without hope, learning is inhibited, communication is disturbed, behavior is altered. Hope influences our behavior, permitting some actions, inhibiting others. When people anticipate a good future, they try things, they take risks. When people see a future in which they are active participants, they make efforts to make things happen. On the other hand, without hope, they feel at the whim of circumstance and believe they have little to lose,” (p.7)
Contributors to Modern Hope Research Kinghorn (2013) categorized 3 main contributors to modern hope research: • Bandura: Distinguished himself from Behaviorist's in developing the idea that individual’s have personal agency and are not just products of their environment. He is credited with the establishment of the concept of Self-Efficacy. Click here to hear about Self Efficacy
Contributors to Modern Hope Research(Kinghorn, 2013) 2. Seligman: Is considered the grandfather of Positive Psychology, and is infamous for his concept of Learned Optimism (Seligman, 2006). Optimism is related to Self Efficacy, but also involves wider beliefs about the world in addition to the sense of self capability. Optimism and Hope are designated as character strengths, which are central to positive psychology’s theory. Click here to hear about Learned Optimism
Contributors to Modern Hope Research(Kinghorn, 2013) 3. Snyder (2002): completed extensive research and coined “Hope Theory,” which breaks down the process of hope into cognitive and emotional tasks, which will be outlined on the next slide. In his extensive research on hope, Snyder (2002) determined the importance of hope, as his studies demonstrated that high hope individuals are: • More likely to engage in health-maintaining behaviors • More adept at coping with trauma and adversity • Less likely to experience sustained depression and anxiety • Less likely to use avoidant coping strategies • More likely to engage in close connections with other people
Defining Hope: Hope Theory (Snyder, 2002) Our sense of hope is largely based upon our goals and thought processes around how we may achieve them. Inherent to this is our self-appraisal process: Do we have the resources to meet the demands? Do we have the motivation to keep going? Snyder, Irving, and Anderson (1991) as cited in Snyder (2002) stated: “Hope is a positive motivational state that is based on an interactively derived sense of successful (a) agency (goal directed energy), and (b) pathways (planning to meet goals),” (p.276) Click to learn about Hope Theory
Kat’s advice about goals based on her personal experience living with illness • Help the client to weed out or set boundaries with people who are disempowering, or supporting their helplessness. If you see yourself as a victim you will stay stuck in the problem, and you can say goodbye to hope. Hope requires you to feel capable; in order to feel that you need to have accomplishments, even if they’re small. • Help the client to do small accomplishable tasks to help them to see their progress, set goals with them that are achievable. Don’t minimize the accomplishments, and encourage celebration and self praise. Help them to focus on what they can do, instead of what they can’t do. Encourage clients to compare to themselves only, not to others. • Encourage clients to reward themselves. I bought myself a beautiful bracelet that said “stronger than yesterday”. It motivated me to continue. • Help the client to stay connected with a strong support system, if a client can become successfully vulnerable, they share in all of the joys and accomplishments through the difficult times. Vulnerability is empowerment in most cases.
Why Nurture Hope? Simply put – Hope is what allows us to keep going. Without it, we will only see obstacles without a way to push through them. Without hope we do not have motivation. People who have high hope do not respond to barriers in the same way as people with lower hope. When high hope individuals are presented with barriers they view it as a challenge to overcome! They use their pathways-like thinking to redirect and adjust their route to their goals, and seek to find alternatives (Snyder, 2000)
Why Nurture Hope? • Hope is an important facet of the human change process (Larsen & Stege, 2010). • Harris and Larsen (2008) found that as individuals’ hope increased, there was a significant decrease in risky behaviors. • Arneau et al. (2007) noted that hope can act as a protective factor, and that it is connected to resilience. • Eliott and Olver (2007) found that the presence of hope predicted greater adherence to treatment. Hope provides people with a resource and source of motivation in the face of adversity.
Threats to Hope • A perceived sense of lack of control over circumstances; the belief that life is left to chance or fate, or the control of powerful others (Brackney & Westman, 1992). • Being isolated, or not having meaningful connections with others, thus limiting the ability to anticipate a positive future (Flemming, 1997). • Feeling as though health care providers do not actively take interest; poor working alliance (Flemming, 1997). • Mental health concerns (20% of all Canadians), particularly depression (8% of all Canadians in their lifetime) (CMHA, 2014). • Extenuating circumstances such as traumatic events, chronic pain, isolation and adjustment problems, job loss, relationship strain, health crises, or financial crises (Miller, 1991). • Having a limited ability to conceptualize possible selves (Taylor & Sirois, 2012). • Loss of a significant other, and/or protracted grief (Snyder, 2002).
Hope Focused Counselling According to Yohani (2008) adopting a hope focused approach to counselling has great benefits. In addition to being an action oriented, and appraisal process, hope has been viewed as a relational process; and is characterized as an “interactive, dynamic process in which people are connected to life through focused activities,” (p. 313). • According to Hubble et al. (1999) hope is recognized as one of the main contributory factors to therapeutic change across many different theoretical approaches. • Practicing in a hope focused way has benefits for clients. Edey and Jevne (2003) state that, “the sense of hope experienced by counsellors can be transferred to clients,” (p.48). Click here to learn about what distinguishes hope-focused counselling
Hope Focused Counselling – The Use of Language • The language we use as counsellor’s has a direct impact on the client’s hopefulness and sense of self-efficacy. Counsellor’s can foster hope through the intentional use of language that conveys hope. Edey and Jevne (2003) provide 3 linguistic tools to foster hope with clients: They are; 1. the Language of “Yet”, 2. the Language of “When”, and 3. the Language of “I believe”.
What Enhances Hope? (Jevne, 2003) • Uplifting memories • Positive relationships • Meaning • Goals and aims • Spiritual practices • Cognitive strategies • Refocused time • Lightheartedness • Hope objects • Hope rituals
Stone’s (1998) Four Hope Enhancing Strategies • Reframing Click to hear about these strategies: • Establishing future goals • Hope oriented conversation • Highlighting strengths
Using Hope Focused Counselling to work with “tough cases”(Edey et al., 1998, as cited in Mutcher, 2011) A hope focused approach can be useful to work with clients who have 4 types of presenting concerns: • The Skidding Effect • The Bruising Effect • The Boomerang Effect • The Alien Effect Click to learn about how to work with these different concerns using a hope focused approach
Existentialism & Hope • Frankl (1959) wrote one of the most influential books of all time, “Man’s Search for Meaning,” which highlights the concept of hope prevailing in the face of extreme adversity. Click to learn about hope and meaning • Existentialist theory is underpinned by the principle that we cannot control life’s unpredictable circumstances, and suffering is unavoidable, but we must accept personal responsibility for our lives and choices, and accept and exercise our freedom to respond to situations (Van Deurzen, 2002). Click here to learn about existential and hope theory
Post Traumatic Growth (Hefferon et al., 2009) “It is through this process of struggling with adversity that changes may arise that propel the individual to a higher level of functioning than which existed prior to the event,” (p.343) 5 Categories of growth after adverse events: • Perceived changes in “self” • Closer family relationships • Change in philosophy of life Click to hear about PTG • Better perspective on life • Strengthened belief system
References Arneau, R. C., Rosen, D. H., Finch, J. F., Rhudy, J. L., & Fortunato, V. J. (2007). Longitudinal effects of hope and depression and anxiety: A latent variable analysis. Journal of Personality, 75(1), 43–63. Brackney, B. E., & Westman, A. S. (1992). Relationships among hope, psychosocial development, and locus of control. Psychological reports, 70(3), 864-866. Canadian Mental Health Association, (2014). Fast facts about mental illness, accessed on July 17th 2014, retrieved from: http://www.cmha.ca/media/fast-facts-about-mental-illness/#.U8mg1xZCc0o De Mello, G., MacInnis, D. J., & Stewart, D. W. (2007). Threats to hope: effects on reasoning about product information. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(2), 153-161. Edey, W., & Jevne, R. F. (2003). Hope, illness, and counselling practice: Making hope visible. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 37(1), 44–51. Edey, W., Jevne, R. F., & Westra, K. (1998). Key elements of hope-focused counselling: The art of making hope visible. Edmonton, AB, Canada: The Hope Foundation of Alberta. Eliott, J., & Olver, I. (2007). Hope and hoping in the talk of dying cancer patients. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 138–149. Flemming, K. (1997). The meaning of hope to palliative care cancer patients. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 14-18. Harris, G. E., & Larsen, D. J. (2008). Understanding hope in the face of an HIV diagnosis and high-risk behaviors. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(3), 401–415.
References Hefferon, K., Grealy, M., & Mutrie, N. (2009). Post‐traumatic growth and life threatening physical illness: A systematic review of the qualitative literature. British journal of health psychology, 14(2), 343-378. Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L., & Miller, S.D. (1999). Introduction. In M.A. Hubble, B.L. Duncan, and S.D. Miller (eds). The Heart and Soul of Change: What Works in Therapy. Washington, D.C.: APA press, 1-32. Jacoby, R., & Keinan, G. (Eds.). (2003). Between stress and hope: From a disease-centered to a health-centered perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. Jevne, R. (2004). Magnifying hope; shrinking hopelessness. Commission on First Nations and Metis Peoples and Justice Reform, Submissions to the Commission, Final Report,2, 6-1. Larsen, D. J., & Stege, R. (2010). Hope-focused practices during early psychotherapy sessions: Part I: Implicit approaches. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 20(3), 271. Mutcher, A. L. (2011). Hope-focused strategies for counsellors(CAAP Final Project, , Lethbridge, Alta), University of Lethbridge;Faculty of Education.
References Snyder, C.R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind, Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275. Snyder, C.R. (2000). Hypothesis: There is Hope. In C.R. Snyder (Eds.), Handbook of HopeTheory, Measures and Applications (pp.3-21). San Diego: Academic Press. Snyder, C. R., Irving, L., & Anderson, J. R. (1991). Hope and health: Measuring the will and the ways. In C. R. Snyder & D. R. Forsyth (Eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective (pp. 285–305). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon. Van Deurzen, E. (2002). Existential counselling & psychotherapy in practice. Sage. Yohani, S. C. (2008). Creating an ecology of hope: Arts-based interventions with refugee children. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 25(4), 309-323.