Everything is made up of Elements • Elements are made up of only one type of atom • 96% of the atoms in the human body are either: • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen or Nitrogen
Mixtures and Solutions • Mixture: A combination of substances in which each substance retains its chemical properties. • Ex. Sand and pepper. • Solution: A combination in which one substance is dissolved into the other. • Ex. Chocolate milk, ocean water
Solutions • Solute: The substance that is being dissolved. • Ex. Lemonade mix • Solvent: The substance that the solute is being dissolved into. • Ex. Water
Water • Possibly the most important substance for living things on Earth. • It is the ultimate solvent! • Water is a polar molecule. • It has both a pos. and neg. charge
Water is composed of Oxygen and Hydrogen (H2O) • The attraction between the atoms forms a Hydrogen bond • Hydrogen bonds help hold many large molecules together
Diffusion • Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. • Diffusion continues until there is no more concentration gradient. http://www.usd.edu/~bgoodman/Osmos.htm
The Role of Carbon in Organisms • Organic Compounds are large molecules, or macromolecules, that contain carbon (C). • Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
Carbon atoms can form a single, double, or triple covalent bond with one another (C-C, C=C, or CC) • Polymer: A macromolecule composed of many smaller molecules or units, usually chained together.
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrate: A molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, with a ratio of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for each carbon atom. • Ex. Glucose C6H12O6
Isomer: Compounds that have the same formula but different 3 dimensional configurations. • Ex. Glucose and fructose.
Carbohydrates • The simplest type of carb. Is called a monosaccharide. • If you broke down a monosaccharide any further, you would no longer have a sugar.
Condensation/dehydration reaction: When 2 or more monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide or a polysaccharide.
Carbohydrates • Disaccharide:A sugar molecule created when twoand only two simple sugars (monosaccharides) combine. • Ex. Sucrose (table sugar). http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/255chemistry.htm
Polysaccharide: A sugar molecule created when more than two simple sugars (monosaccharides) combine. • Ex. Starch, glycogen, cellulose.
Carbohydrates Starch: used as food storage in plants. http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/255chemistry.htm
Carbohydrates Glycogen:Food storage molecule for mammals. Similar to starch but more highly branched. http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/255chemistry.htm
Carbohydrates Cellulose:Forms plant cell walls, used for support. Glucose subunits hooked together like a chain-linked fence. http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/255chemistry.htm
Lipids • Lipids: organic compounds that have much less oxygen than carbs.! http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/255chemistry.htm
Referred to as fats and oils • Ex. Beef fat: C57H110O6 • Insoluble in water because they are non-polar • Used by cells for energy storage, insulation and a protective coating. • A major component of membranes that surround all living cells is glycerol • The backbone for the lipid molecule
Types of Fats • Saturated Fats: No double bonds (all single bonds) between the carbons of the fatty acid chain. • Ex. Steak fat, butter fat, usually solid.
Unsaturated Fats: Contain double bonds between the carbons of the fatty acid chain. • Ex. Vegetable oil, peanut fat, usually liquid.
Saturated V/S Unsaturated Fats http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/255chemistry.htm
Saturated fats are the very unhealthy fats. • They make the body produce more cholesterol, which may raise blood cholesterol levels.
Proteins • A protein is a large, complex polymer • composed of C, H, O, N, and sometimes S atoms.
Amino Acids • Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. • There are 20 amino acids found in nature. • Their order determines the type of protein. • They become linked due to a condensation rxn.
The Importance of Proteins • They have important functions in all living things. • Form Teeth, Hair, Fingernails, Exoskeletons. • Carry O2 in blood, help provide immunity, etc.
The Structure of Nucleic Acids • Nucleic Acid: A complex macromolecule that stores cellular info. in the form of a code. • Made up of smaller subunits layered one on top of the other called nucleotides.
Nucleotides are comprised of a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. • C, H, O, N, P atoms all present. • Can contain the information necessary to synthesize proteins.
Nucleotide Structure http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/gk2x46a.gif
DNA: type of nucleic acid • DNA: DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. • A master copy of an organism’s genetic information • Double helix: p • Strands of DNA form genes, which are the components of chomosomes. http://academy.d20.co.edu/kadets/lundberg/images/biology/dna25.gif http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e21/21b.htm#mrna
RNA: type of nucleic acid • RiboNucleic Acid • Helps in the formation of DNA and many proteins. Not a double helix.
Chemical Reactions • Chemical reactions involve the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products • Example: 2H2 + O2 2H2O
Energy in Reactions • Chemical reactions that releaseenergy occur spontaneously • Example: Hydrogen gas burning.
Energy in Reactions • Chemical rxns that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy • Example: must add energy to force water to decompose into hydrogen and oxygen
Enzyme (Ernie) • A protein that acts as a biological catalyst • Catalyst: a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction • enzymes work by lowering the activation energies of chemical reactions • http://www.freelance-animation.com/newwebpage/gallery/enzyme_mov.html
Lowering Activation Energy Less energy is needed to complete the reaction. Result: the reaction occurs faster!
Enzymes • Only work on specific substrate (specificity) • Are not used up in chemical reactions ~ can be used again. • http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/Enzyme%20activity.html
Enzymes • Can be denatured with heat or pH and will no longer work.
Important Study Tips • Elements/Compounds/Molecules • Nucleus/Protons/Neutrons/Electrons • Energy Levels/Electron Clouds • Isotope/Isomer/Ion • Ionic/Covalent Bond • Mixture/Solution • Solvent/Solute • Acid/Base/pH • Diffusion/Kinetic Energy/Brownian Motion • Polymers – Carbohydrates/Lipids/Proteins/Nucleic Acids • Saturated/Unsaturated Fats • Amino Acids/Peptide Bonds • Proteins/Enzymes • DNA/RNA/Nucleotides
Section 6.1 Vocabulary Trace Element Element Nucleus Atom Proton Neutron Isotope Electron Compounds Energy Levels Covalent Bond Reactant Molecule Ionic Bond Product Chemical Equation Ion Metabolism Subscript
Section 6.2 Vocabulary Mixture Solution Solute pH Solvent Acid Base Importance of Water Polar Molecule H+ OH- Hydrogen Bond List 3 factors that affect diffusion Kinetic Energy Diffusion Robert Brown Brownian Motion Concentration Gradient Dynamic Equilibrium
Section 6.3 Vocabulary Polymer Isomers Condensation Carbohydrate Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Lipids Glycerol Disaccharide Proteins Polysaccharide Amino Acids Nucleic Acid Nucleotide Peptide Bond Substrate DNA Active Site Enzymes RNA