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Introduction to Verbs Chapter 15

Introduction to Verbs Chapter 15. Exegetical Insight 1 John 2:1 and 3:6. 1 John 2:1  Tekni,a mou( tau/ta gra,fw u`mi/n i[na mh. a`ma,rthte Å kai. eva,n tij a`ma,rth |( para,klhton e;comen pro.j to.n pate,ra VIhsou/n Cristo.n di,kaion

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Introduction to Verbs Chapter 15

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  1. Introduction to VerbsChapter 15

  2. Exegetical Insight 1 John 2:1 and 3:6 • 1 John 2:1 Tekni,a mou( tau/ta gra,fw u`mi/n i[na mh. a`ma,rthteÅ kai. eva,n tij a`ma,rth|( para,klhton e;comen pro.j to.n pate,ra VIhsou/n Cristo.n di,kaion\ • 1 John 3:6 pa/j o` evn auvtw/| me,nwn ouvc a`marta,nei\ pa/j o` a`marta,nwn ouvc e`w,raken auvto.n ouvde. e;gnwken auvto,nÅ

  3. English Grammar • Verb – a word that describes action or state of being. • I am studying Greek. • Greek is the language of the New Testament. • Person • First (I, we) • Second (you) • Third (he, she, it, they) • Number – either singular or plural • I am the teacher. • You are the students. • Agreement – A verb must agree with its subject in person and number. • Time – when the action takes place (past, present, future)

  4. English Grammar • Tense – In English, tense refers to both the time of the action and the form of the word. • I study – present tense • I will study – future tense • I studied – past tense Note: the time of the verb is from the standpoint of the speaker/writer, not the reader. • Aspect: What is the difference between: • I studied last night. • I was studying last night. • The difference is in the kind of action: completed versus continuous.

  5. Aspect and time English Grammar

  6. English Grammar • Voice – refers to the relationship between the subject and the verb. • Active – the subject does the action of the verb. • Bill hit the ball. • Passive – the subject receives the action of the verb. • Bill was hit by the ball.

  7. Greek Verbs Tenses Present Aorist Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect

  8. Greek Verbs- tenses Present Shows action in present time

  9. Greek Verbs- tenses Future Shows action of the verb as defined in the future.

  10. Greek Verbs- tenses Aorist Simple, undefined action.

  11. Greek Verbs- tenses Imperfect Continuous or linear action in past time.

  12. Greek Verbs- tenses Perfect The action was completed in the past, but has lasting and continuing results into the future.

  13. Greek Verbs- tenses Pluperfect The action was completed in the past, with continuing results in the past.

  14. Greek Verbs- Moods Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative Participle* Infinitive

  15. Greek Verbs- Moods Indicative Makes an assertion of fact

  16. Greek Verbs- Moods Imperative A command to do something.

  17. Greek Verbs- Moods Subjunctive Makes an assertion about which there is some doubt, uncertainty, or indefiniteness

  18. Greek Verbs- Moods Optative Usually expresses a wish or desire.

  19. Greek Verbs- Moods Participle* A verbal adjective

  20. Greek Verbs- Moods Infinitive* A verbal noun

  21. Greek Verbs- Voices Active Passive Middle

  22. Greek Verbs- Voices Active Action was completed by the subject of the verb.

  23. Greek Verbs- Voices Passive The subject receives the action of the verb.

  24. Greek Verbs- Voices Middle The subject acts in some way upon itself or to itself.

  25. Present Active Indicative Present tense stem + Connecting Vowel + Primary active personal endings lu + o + men = luvomen

  26. Greek Verbs- Charts Stem: This is the part of the verb that carries the basic meaning. Connecting vowel: Greek verbs sometimes need a vowel after the stem to aid in the pronunciation of the word. Personal endings: Suffixes added to the end of the verb indicating person and number

  27. Keep Parsing of Nouns and Verbs Straight • Verbs do not have case or gender; nouns do not have person. • Nouns • Case, gender, number • Verbs • Tense, voice, mood, person and number

  28. Greek Verbs- Charts Our first set of endings and the primary active endings are as follows: 1s-w 2s-eiV 3s-ei 1p-omen 2p-ete 3p-ousi(n)

  29. Greek Verbs- Charts Parsing: the breaking down of the verb and denoting of: person, number, tense, voice, mood, lexical form, and definition of inflected form. Lexical form: For verbs, this will be the 1st person singular, present indicative.

  30. Paradigm: Present Active Indicative- luvvw Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st Sing. Redup Stem Form. Vowel Endings Paradigm Present Present o / e Prim act luvw

  31. Primary Active ending

  32. Greek Verbs- Tense Aspect: This can be either continuous or undefined. Aspect ALWAYS takes precedence over time Time: Present tense generally indicates an action occurring in the present tense.

  33. Verbs & Personal Pronouns It is not usually necessary to provide the personal pronoun as the subject of a verb because the verb ending indicates the personal pronoun subject of the verb. Reasons for including the personal pronoun are twofold: Emphasis. Gender.

  34. Beta th.n fwnh.n auvtou/ avkou,eij You hear its sound

  35. Gamma evxousi,an e;cei o` ui`o.j tou/ avnqrw,pou the son of man has authority

  36. Delta to. fw/j tou/ ko,smou tou,tou ble,pousin They see the light of the world

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