Using the Progress Monitoring Model to Drive Student and Teacher Success in Music Michael Antmann Dr. Steven Kelly January 10, 2014
Why?? • Emphasis on Assessment • No Child Left Behind • Florida A+ Plan • Merit Pay (No Teacher Left Behind) • RTTT Assessment • Develop Independent Musicians • Assessment, Grading, Objectivity/Consistency
Why?? (cont.) • Research on behaviors of new teachers • Experience as a student is significant influence • Changes during recent years • Old teacher evaluation tool – FPMS • New system - Marzano/Danielson • Emphasis on the student • You taught it, but did they learn it?
Background • Music Teachers are taught how to teach and what to teach. • Have not been taught how to evaluate the results of their teaching • Music Teachers often assume that learning has occurred because students demonstrate (perform) in class. • A lack of assessment contributes to music being perceived as a non-academic class • Music is now a service or “nice to have” activity
The Need for Assessment • Assessment is essential because: • Measures what students have learned • Provides feedback as to how well teachers have taught and what they have taught • Assessment should intertwine with instruction • When planning objectives & activities, plan how to assess • What do you want students to learn as a result of performing the music? • Composer information • Style • Notes/rhythms/dynamics/phrasing • Tone/voice quality
The Need (cont.) • Assessment should intertwine with instruction • What are the consequences of your instruction? • Get better • Transfer to music outside of school • Enjoy music • Participate in music in their unique ways • The music becomes your TEXT BOOK!!!!! • Should include both subjective & objective assessments • Subjective: Performance – Group, Individual • Objective: Written – Based on music being performed
Questions • What do you expect your students to be able to do or know before they leave your program? • Did all of the students who graduated from your program meet these expectations? • Even the 3rd clarinets?? • Are you sure? How did you measure this?
What should students be learning? Setting Goals for student performance
Goals… • “If you aim at nothing, you will hit it every time.” (ZigZiglar) • Students should know what goals and expectations have been set for them. • This could increase motivation to practice; preparation homework has been found to be effective. (Bailey & Foyle, 1986) • NGSSS are comprehensive, but lack specificity…
S.M.A.R.T. Goals • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Relevant • Timely
Non-Examples • My students will know all of their scales. • I want to play grade 3 music with my eighth graders. • Incoming freshman should be able to read music. • My students will be able to sing in harmony.
Examples • By the end of 7th grade, students will be able to play 7 scales (G, C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db) in the All-State pattern. • At the end of the first half of beginning band, chorus, or orchestra, students will be able to read and perform rhythms including whole notes, half notes, and quarter notes.
Discussion-Activity • What do you think students should be able to do at the end of 8th or 12th grade? • High school teachers: what would you like students to know or be able to do by the time they get to high school? (be realistic) • Activity: In groups or alone, list some specific goals for students in your program.
Activity • Take the overall goals you set for your program, and set goals for each year. • Finally, based on your yearly goals, what should your students know or be able to do at the end of each quarter? • Example • Consider adding goals for students who work ahead to go above expectations.
How do we communicate our performance goals to students and meet the requirements for teacher evaluation? Developing learning goals
Learning Goals • Help students to understand what they are working towards during class. • Can help keep rehearsal focused and on track • Make it easy to assess student progress • Are a fact of life, so deal with it…
Example 1 • Learning Goal: Students will be able to demonstrate proper articulation (tonguing) on their instruments. • 4.0: I can demonstrate proper articulation on my instrument, and I can do it while playing a piece of music on my instrument. • 3.0: I can demonstrate proper articulation on my instrument. I can start the tone with my tongue. • 2.0: I understand how to start the tone with my tongue, but I need more practice before I can do it. • 1.0: I know what articulation is, but I am not sure how to do it on my instrument. • 0: I do not understand articulation and I need someone to help me.
Example 2 • Learning Goal: Students will be able to play their individual parts in Gaelic Rhapsody, mm. 1-39, with correct notes and rhythms. • 4.0: I can play my individual part with correct notes and rhythms. I am also able to perform my part with good phrasing while incorporating all musical/expressive markings. • 3.0: I can play my individual part with correct notes and rhythms. • 2.0: I am able to play some or most of the notes and rhythms correctly in my music, but need more practice before I can play all of it. • 1.0: I cannot play the notes and rhythms in my music correctly, but I do understand (can read) the music. I will need to practice my part. • 0: I do not understand the music notation or rhythms in my part and I need help.
Example 2.5 • Learning Goal: Students will be able to play their individual parts in their MPA musicwith correct notes and rhythms. (Gaelic Rhapsody, mm. 1-39, Bunker Hill – 2nd strain) • 4.0: I can play my individual part with correct notes and rhythms. I am also able to perform my part with good phrasing while incorporating all musical/expressive markings. • 3.0: I can play my individual part with correct notes and rhythms. • 2.0: I am able to play some or most of the notes and rhythms correctly in my music, but need more practice before I can play all of it. • 1.0: I cannot play the notes and rhythms in my music correctly, but I do understand (can read) the music. I will need to practice my part. • 0: I do not understand the music notation or rhythms in my part and I need help.
How do we check to make sure students are understanding and meeting our goals? Progress monitoring/assessment
Progress Monitoring • Long-term goals are set for students • Progress towards goals are measured by regular assessment • Student success is measured as actual progress vs. expected progress • If students are not meeting goals, TEACHING is adjusted to meet student needs. • (www.studentprogress.org)
Benefits of Progress Monitoring • More efficient teaching and learning • Students have the opportunity to accelerate learning • Accurate student assessment • Teacher can communicate more effectively about student progress • Allows for higher expectations
Activity • Listen to the example. • What do you hear? • How would you grade this?
Example Assessment #1 • Task: Perform your concert Bb scale and arpeggio. • Criteria: Student plays scale and arpeggio with correct notes. • Pass/Fail
Example Assessment #2 • Task: Demonstrate correct, consistent staccato articulation. • Criteria: Each note is played with staccato articulation. • Pass/Fail
Example Assessment #3 • Perform your Concert Bb scale.
Example Assessment #4 • Task: Perform your Concert Bb scale. • Criteria: Student performs scale with: • Minimum tempo of 120. • Correct articulation (All-State pattern) • No wrong notes or rhythms. • Characteristic tone • Steady pulse • Pass/Fail
Assessment • Effective assessment is critical for progress monitoring. • Formal assessments: performance assessments, playing tests, written tests, etc. • Informal assessments: classroom observations, student self-assessments, rehearsal observations, etc.
Assessment (cont.) • Frequent assessments have been shown to improve student performance. • Criteria should be clear, and should be understood by the student. • Students should be assessed on class objectives, goals, benchmarks, etc. • If you expect them to know it, then it should be assessed.
Grading • The grade can be an effective tool in student assessment. • Grade should reflect student mastery of content. • Avoid giving grades for effort, participation, etc. • Performing arts classes have factors that make grading a little different.
Grading (cont.) • Performing Arts classes are co-curricular and occur both during and outside the school day. • Grading expectations are different • Logistic challenges that are unique. • A 2007 study examined the grading and assessment method of “successful middle school bands” in Florida.
Grading/Assessment Practices • 2007 study surveyed middle school band directors in Florida with 4 consecutive years of Superior ratings. • “Performing on instruments” and “reading/notating music” most commonly assessed. • Individual playing tests were the most commonly used assessment tools. • Practice journals/logs were found to have no relationship with program success. (consistent with other research). • After playing requirements, participation and concert attendance were next highest (inconsistent).
Sample Grading Policy • Performance/Music Assessments – 50% • Concert Attendance/Preparation – 20% • Projects – 11% • Solo and Ensemble, NGSSS projects, etc. • Written Assignments – 10% • Preparation – 9% • Instead of participation; are studies prepared for class? This can including practicing parts ahead of time (instead of practice journals).
Contact Info Michael Antmann Orange County Public Schools Michael.Antmann@ocps.net Dr. Steven Kelly Florida State University firstname.lastname@example.org Tinyurl.com /nafmepm