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Introduction to Internet of Things ( IoT )

Introduction to Internet of Things ( IoT ). What is IoT. Network of Physical Objects. Internet of Things ( IoT ) comprises things that have unique identities and are connected to the Internet

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Introduction to Internet of Things ( IoT )

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  1. Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT)

  2. What is IoT Network of Physical Objects • Internet of Things (IoT) comprises things that have unique identities and are connected to the Internet • The focus on IoT is in the configuration, control and networking via the Internet of devices or “Things” that are traditionally not associated with the internet • Eg: pump, utility meter, car engine, Sensors • IoT is a new revolution in the capabilities of the endpoints that are connected to the internet

  3. What is IoT Network of Physical Objects The Scope of IoT is not limited to just connecting things (device, appliances, machines) to the Internet IoT allows these things to communicate and exchange data (control& information) Processing on these data will provide us various applications towards a common user or machine goal

  4. What is IoT Network of Physical Objects Data is Raw and unprocessed data obtained From IoT devices/Systems Information is inferred from the data By Filtering, processing, catograzing And contextualizing data. Knowledge is inferred from information By organizing and structuring information Wisdom is applying our knowledge into action to achieve specific objectives. Inferring information and Knowledge from data

  5. IoT Applications

  6. IoT Applications • Home • Smart Appliances • Intrusion detection • Smoke/gas detection • Cities • Smart parking • Smart traffic control • Structural health onitoring • Logistics • Shipment monitoring • Remote vehicle diagenesis • Route generation, scheduling • Etc…

  7. IoT Definition A dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network, often communicate data associated with users and their environments.

  8. Dynamic and Self-Adapting • Self-Configuring • Interoperable Communication Protocols • Unique Identity • Integrated into Information Network

  9. Dynamic & Self-Adapting: IoT devices and systems may have the capability to dynamically adapt with the changing contexts and take actions based on their operating conditions, user’s context, or sensed information • Self-Configuring: IoT devices may have self-configuring capability, allowing a large number of devices to work together to provide certain functionality (Minimize the manual or user intervention) • Interoperable Communication Protocols: IoT devices may support a number of interoperable communication protocols and can communicate with other devices and infrastructure Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  10. Unique Identity: Each IoT system has a unique identity and unique identifier (IP address or URI) • Integrated into Information Network: IoT devices are usually integrated into the information network that allows them to communicate and exchange data with other devices and systems Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  11. Characteristics of IoT • The fundamental characteristics of the IoT are as follows: • Interconnectivity • Things-related services • Heterogeneity • Dynamic changes • Enormous scale • Safety • Connectivity Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  12. Interconnectivity: With regard to the IoT, anything can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  13. Things-related services: The IoT is capable of providing thing-related services within the constraints of things. • Such as privacy protection and semantic consistency between physical things and their associated virtual things. • In order to provide thing-related services within the constraints of things, both the technologies in physical world and information world will change. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  14. Heterogeneity: The devices in the IoT are heterogeneous as based on different hardware platforms and networks. • They can interact with other devices or service platforms through different networks. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  15. Dynamic changes: The state of devices change dynamically, e.g., sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including location and speed. • Moreover, the number of devices can change dynamically Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  16. Enormous scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be at least an order of magnitude larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. • Even more critical will be the management of the data generated and their interpretation for application purposes. • This relates to semantics of data, as well as efficient data handling. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  17. Safety: As we gain benefits from the IoT, we must not forget about safety. • As both the creators and recipients of the IoT, we must design for safety. • This includes the safety of our personal data and the safety of our physical well-being. Securing the endpoints, the networks, and the data moving across all of it means creating a security paradigm that will scale. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  18. Connectivity: Connectivity enables network accessibility and compatibility. • Accessibility is getting on a network while compatibility provides the common ability to consume and produce data. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  19. IoT Enabling technologies • IoT enabled by several technologies as follows: • Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) • Cloud Computing • Big data analytics • Embedded systems • Security protocols and architectures • Communication protocols • Web services • Mobile Internet and • Semantic search engines Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  20. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) • A Wireless Sensor Networks comprises of distributed devices with sensors which are used to monitor the environmental and physical conditions • A WSNs consists of a number of end-nodes and routers and a coordinator • End nodes have several sensors attached to them • It can also act as routers • Routers are responsible for routing the data packets from end-nodes to the coordinator • The coordinator collects the data from all the nodes and communicate to the other coordinator • It also act as gateway that connects the WSNs to the Internet Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  21. List of WSNs used in IoT systems: • Weather monitoring systems • Indoor air quality monitoring systems • Soil moisture monitoring systems • Surveillance systems • Smart grids • Structural health monitoring systems • WSNs are enabled by wireless communication protocols such as IEEE802.15.4. • ZigBee is one of the most popular wireless technologies used in WSNs • It had a ability to manage large number of low-cost and low-power sensing nodes • WSNs are also self-organizing networks (Robustness) Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  22. Cloud Computing • Cloud computing is a transformative computing paradigm that involves delivering applications and services over the internet • It involves provisioning of computing, networking and storage resources on demand and providing these resources as metered services to the users, in a “pay as you go” model • Cloud computing resources can be accessed over the networking using standard access mechanisms that provide plat-form independent access through the use of heterogeneous client platforms (Workstation, Laptops, Tablets, and Smart-phones) • It provide service to multiple users using multi-tenancy Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  23. Cloud computing offers following three different services to the users: • Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS): Users can access the Storage and Computing resources (Virtual machine instances and Virtual storages) • Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS): It provides the users the ability to develop and deploy application in the cloud using the development tools, APIs, software libraries • Users are responsible for developing, deploying, configuration and managing applications on the cloud infrastructure • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): It provides the users a complete software application or the user interface to the application itself • SaaS application are platform independent and it can be accessed from various devices • Cloud service provider manages both the application and data Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  24. Big Data Analytics • Big data is defined as collection of data sets whose volume, velocity and variety are so large that it is difficult to store, manage, process and analyze the data using traditional database and data processing tools • Big data analytics involves several steps: • Data Cleaning • Data munging (wrangling) • Data processing • Visualization • Volume: Massive scale data that is difficult to store, manage and process • Velocity: How fast the data is generated and how frequently it varies • Variety: Forms of the data (multimedia) Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  25. Communication Protocols • Communication protocols form the backbone of IoT systems and enable network connectivity and coupling to applications • It allow the devices to exchange data over the network • Various layers which consists of different protocols as follows: • Link layer • Network layer • Transport layer • Application layer • These protocols define the following processes: • Data exchange formats, Data encoding, Addressing schemes for the devices and Routing of packets from source to destination • Also performs Sequence control, flow control and retransmission of lost packets Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  26. Embedded Systems • An embedded system is a computer system that has computer hardware and software embedded to perform specific tasks • Key components of embedded systems are follows: • Microprocessor or microcontroller • Memory (ROM, RAM, Cache) • Networking units (Ethernet, WiFi adapters) • Input/Output units (Display, Keyboards) • Storage (Flash memory) • Some embedded systems have specialized processors: • Digital Signal Processing (DSPs) • Graphics Processors • Application processors • E.g: Digital watches to Digital Cameras, point of sale terminals Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  27. Logical Design of IoT • It refers to an abstract representation of entities and processes without going into low-level specifics of the implementation • It describes the following: • IoT Functional Blocks • IoT Communication Models • IoT Communication APIs Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  28. IoT Functional Blocks • An IoT System comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for the following: • Identification • Sensing • Actuation • Communication and Management Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  29. Functional Blocks of IoT Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  30. Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuating, monitoring and control functions • Communication: The communication block handles the communication for the IoT system (using various protocols) • Services: An IoT system uses various types of IoT services such as : • Services for Device monitoring • Device control Services • Data publishing Services and • Services for Device discovery • Management: Management functional block provides various functions to govern the IoT system Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  31. Security: Security functional block secures the IoT system and by providing functions such as: • Authentication • Authorization • Message and Content integrity • Data security • Application: IoT applications provide an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system • Applications also allow users to view the system status and view or analyze the processed data Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  32. IoT Communication Models • The following types of communication models were incorporated in IoT communication process namely: • Request-Response • Publish-Subscribe • Push-pull • Exclusive Pair Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  33. Request-Response Model • In this model the client sends request to the server and the server responds to the requests • When the server receives a request, it decides how to respond, fetches the data, retrieves resource representations, prepares the response, and then sends the response to the client • Request-response model is a stateless communication model and each request-response pair is independent of others Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  34. Publish-Subscribe Model • Publish-Subscribe is a communication model that involves publishers, brokers and consumers • Publishers are the source of data • Publishers send the data to the topics which are managed by the brokers • Publishers are not aware of the consumers • Consumers subscribe to the topics which are managed by the broker • When the broker receives data for a topic from the publisher, it sends the data to all the subscribed consumers Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  35. Push-Pull Model • Push-Pull is a communication model in which the data producers push the data to queues and the consumers pull the data from the queues • Producers do not need to be aware of the consumers • Queues help in decoupling the messaging between the producers and consumers • Queues also act as a buffer which helps in situations when there is a mismatch between the rate at which the producers push data and the rate at which the consumers pull data Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  36. Exclusive Pair Model • Exclusive pair is a Bi-directional, fully duplex communication model that uses a persistent connection between the client and server • Once the connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection • Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup • Exclusive pair is a stateful communication model and the server is aware of all the open connections Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  37. Logical Design of IoT • It refers to an abstract representation of entities and processes without going into low-level specifics of the implementation • It describes the following: • IoT Functional Blocks • IoT Communication Models • IoT Communication APIs Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  38. IoT Communication APIs • There are two major communication APIs were used in IoT such ae follows: • REST-based Communication APIs • WebSocket-based Communication APIs Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  39. REST-based Communication APIs • Representational State Transfer (REST) is a set of architectural principles used for designing Web services and Web APIs that focus on a system’s resources and how resources states are addressed and transferred • REST APIs follow the Request-Response communication model • The REST architectural constraints apply to the components, connector, and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system • The REST architectural constraints are as follows: • Client-Server • Stateless • Cache-able • Layered system • Uniform Interface • Code on demand Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  40. Client-Server: The principle behind the client-server constraint is the separation of concerns. • Client should not interfere the storage of data from server • Server should not be concerned about the user interface • Stateless: Each request from client to server must contain all the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any sored context on the server • The session state is kept entirely on the client • Cache-able: Cache constraint requires that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cache-able or non-cache-able • If a response is cache-able, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests • Catching can partially or completely eliminate some interactions and improve efficiency and scalability Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  41. Layered System: Layered system constraint, constraints the behaviour of components such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting • Uniform Interface: This constraint requires that the method of communication between a client and a server must be uniform • When a client holds a representation of a resource it has all the information required to update or delete the resource • Each message includes enough information to describe how to process the message • Code on demand: Servers can provide executable code or scripts for clients to execute in their context (it is optional). Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  42. Communication with REST APIs Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  43. Request-response model used by REST Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  44. HTTP request methods and actions Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  45. WebSocket-based Communication APIs • WebSocket APIs allow bi-directional, full duplex communication between client and servers • It follows the exclusive pair communication model described previously • It does not require a new connection to be setup for each message to be sent • It begins with a connection setup request sent by the client to the server • Request is sent over HTTP, and the server interprets it as an upgrade request • If server supports WebSocket protocol, the server responds to the Websocket handshake response Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  46. After the connection is setup, the client and server can send data/message to each other in full-duplex mode • WebSocket APIs reduce the network traffic and latency as there is no overhead for connection setup and termination requests for each message • It is suitable for IoT applications that have low latency or high throughput requirements Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  47. Exclusive pair model used by WebSocket APIs Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  48. IOT Architecture Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  49. OSI Layers The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

  50. Dr. K. Mohan, VIT, Vellore

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