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Chapter 8 Sexual Behaviors

Chapter 8 Sexual Behaviors

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Chapter 8 Sexual Behaviors

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  1. Chapter 8Sexual Behaviors

  2. Celibacy • Types of Celibacy • Complete celibacy • Partial celibacy

  3. Reasons for or Benefits of Celibacy • Religious, moral beliefs • Waiting for the appropriate person • Learning about other aspects of self • Health considerations • During substance abuse recovery

  4. Erotic Dreams • Expression and exploration of desires taking place within the mind • Most males, two thirds females • Nocturnal orgasm

  5. Erotic Fantasy • Can occur during daydreams, masturbation, or during sexual encounters • 95% of women and men fantasize • Fantasy content among heterosexual and non-heterosexual individuals are similar, except for sex of imagined partner

  6. Sexual Fantasy • Function of sexual fantasies • Source of pleasure and arousal • Overcome sexual anxiety • Acceptable expression of socially unacceptable behavior • Gender similarities and differences • Fantasies: Help or Hindrance? • Most research points to helpful

  7. Perspectives on Masturbation • Traditional Condemnation • Viewed as non-procreational • Erroneous health concerns • Freud considered it immature • Contemporary research has established that it is not harmful

  8. Purposes for Masturbation • Relieves sexual tension • Means of self-exploration • Assists in physical relaxation

  9. Self-Pleasuring Technique • Follow your moral values • Set aside adequate time and relax • Experiment with different types of touch

  10. Maltz Levels of Sexual Expression • Maltz levels of sexual expression • Sexual energy as a force • Positive • +1 = positive role fulfillment • +2 = making love • +3 = authentic sexual intimacy • Negative • -1 = impersonal interaction • -2 = abusive interaction • -3 = violent interaction

  11. Maltz Hierarchy of Sexual Interaction

  12. Kissing and Touching • Kissing • Cross-cultural practices and attitudes toward kissing • Touching • Cornerstone of human sexuality • Whole body is responsive • Personal preferences • Specific erogenous zones • Tribadism

  13. Manual Stimulation of Genitals • Individual differences with regard to manual stimulation • Most women need consistent touching through orgasm • Men may not like to be touched just after orgasm

  14. Oral-Genital Stimulation • Types: cunnilungus and fellatio • Acceptance varies • More unmarried people engaging in oral sex now than reported in Kinsey’s survey

  15. Sources of Unpleasant or Bitter-Tasting Ejaculate

  16. Anal Stimulation • Prevalence is lower than other forms of sexual activity • Health risk (HIV, other infections) • Lubricants and gentle insertion needed • Anilingus/ Rimming

  17. Coitus and Coital Positions • Position variations • Man or woman above • Face-to-face • Side-lying • Rear entry

  18. What Is Your Favorite Intercourse Position?

  19. Tantric Intercourse • Eastern path to spiritual enlightenment • Sexual expression considered a form of spiritual meditation • Involves control and delay of male orgasm with focus on harmony with partner

  20. Chapter 9Sexual Orientations

  21. A Continuum of Sexual Orientations • Primary erotic, psychological, emotional, and social orientation • Homosexual • Orientation toward same sex • Gay men and lesbians • Bisexual • Orientation toward both same and other sex • Heterosexual • Orientation toward other sex • Asexual • No sexual attraction toward either sex

  22. Kinsey’s Continuum of Sexual Orientation

  23. Kinsey’s 7-point Continuum • 0 = exclusive contact with and erotic attraction to the other sex • 7 = exclusive contact with and erotic attraction to the same sex • Men are more likely to be found on far ends of scale • Women who identify as heterosexual are 27 times more likely than heterosexual men to express moderate or more same sex attraction

  24. Kinsey’s Scale

  25. Bisexuality • More women identify as bisexual than men • Rates of bisexuality have tripled in past decade • Types of bisexuality • Real orientation • Transitory orientation • Homosexual denial

  26. Sexual Fluidity • Variability in attraction at various times and situations • For women • Sexual fluidity is more common • For men • Sexual fluidity is much less common

  27. What Determines Sexual Orientation?Psychosocial Theories • Focus on role of life experiences, parenting patterns, or psychological attributes of individual • Attempt to explain the “cause” of homosexuality • Theories • “By Default” Theory • The Seduction Myth • Freud’s Theory • Parenting patterns or early childhood experiences; no research to support

  28. What Determines Sexual Orientation?Biological Theories • Focus on biological causes for sexual orientation • Genetic factors • Homosexuality as familial • Identical twin studies • Homosexuality and gender nonconformity • Implications if biology is destiny • May lead to greater acceptance • Genetic engineering, tolerance for “defective” orientation, and intolerance for choices

  29. Societal Attitudes • Cross-cultural attitudes vary greatly • Judeo-Christian attitudes have varied

  30. Societal Attitudes • Shift from sinner to sickness: early 1900s • 1974 APA removed homosexuality from list of mental disorders • No differences in psychological adjustment across sexual orientation • Sexual reorientation therapy does not work but gay affirmative therapy is helpful

  31. Homophobia • Anti-homosexual attitudes • Irrational fear or self-loathing • May legitimize hate crimes directed toward sexual minorities • Hate Crimes Laws

  32. Causes of Homophobia and Hate Crimes • Lack of acceptance and valuing • Traditional gender role stereotypes • Extreme manifestation of cultural norms • Denial of homosexual feelings

  33. States With No Hate Crime Laws

  34. Sexual Minorities and the Media • Effects of increasing exposure • Portrayal of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals as “regular folks” • Individuals cannot determine sexual orientation of individual shown on a video

  35. Lifestyles • “Gay Lifestyle” may focus on sexual aspects between same-sex partners • “Lifestyles” of LGB individuals are as varied as those of heterosexuals – representing all social classes, occupations, races, religions, and political persuasions

  36. Coming Out and Disclosure • Coming Out • Several steps involved • Self-acknowledgement • Self-acceptance • Disclosure • Passing: risks and benefits • Telling family can be difficult • Involvement in the LGBT community • Double minority • Individuals who are both sexual and racial minorities

  37. Same-Sex Relationships • Similarities with heterosexual couples • More egalitarian than other-sex relationships • Sex Differences • Lesbians more likely than gay men to be monogamous and value emotional intimacy

  38. Family Life • Variations • Same-sex couple • Same-sex couple with children • Single individual with children • Same-Sex Parenting • Adoption laws • Children of LGB parents do not differ from those of heterosexual parents

  39. Gay Rights Movement • Began in 1969 with Stonewall Rebellion • Goals • Decriminalization of private sexual behavior • Legal protection from discrimination • Legal protection for same-sex families • Health care • Marriage • Adoption