HAPPY CINCO DE MAYO! • The holiday of Cinco de Mayo is primarily a regional holiday in Mexico, celebrated in the state of Puebla. There is some limited recognition of the holiday in other parts of the country. For the most part the celebrations combine food, music and dancing. • In Mexico City like the rest of the Mexican capitals all the young men who serve the military services pledge allegiance to the Mexican national flag and the institutions that it represents.
BATTLE OF PUEBLA The holiday commemorates an initial victory of Mexican forces led by General Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín over French forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. The date is observed in the United States and other locations around the world as a celebration of Mexican heritage and pride.
Although the Mexican army was victorious over the French at Puebla, the victory only delayed the French invasion of Mexico City; a year later, the French occupied Mexico. The French occupying forces placed Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico on the throne of Mexico. The French were eventually defeated and expelled in 1867. Maximilian was executed by President Benito Juarez, five years after the Battle of Puebla.
I. Washington Takes Office • Washington’s inauguration took place on April 30, 1789. • Inauguration is the ceremony of swearing a public official into office. • Today it is on Noon, Jan. 20 for Pres.
Oath of Office “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.” Washington Bible
Capital: New York City • Vice President: John Adams (had ran against Washington & lost)
Problems Facing Washington • Examples are: -As the first President, he is not quite sure what to do or how to act. He has no examples to follow. -He has to carry out the new constitution.
-the 13 states did not always work together well. -Huge national debt: owed: $81.5 million Receives: $4.5 million -Relations with Britain and France worsen. war in Europe; Interfering with our trade and ships.
II. A Time of Many Firsts • What is a precedent? This is setting an example that others follow. 1.Examples of precedents established by Washington & copied by other Presidents:
Action: Copied? 1.The Chief Executive Should be called President: yes • The Pres. Should not parade in public and shake hands. No
Washington would not accept invitations to go to someone’s house for dinner. No • He established a group of expert advisors Yes, the cabinet. Every Pres. has had one.
No person should serve as President more than 2 terms. Yes
Washington believed no person should serve more than 2 terms. • What President broke this precedent? Franklin D. Roosevelt • How many times was he elected? 4
What constitutional amendment limits the number of terms one person may serve as President now? 22nd Amdt. • How long is a Presidential term? one term = 4 years
The 22nd Amdt. Limits the Presidency to 2 terms or 10 years. III. The Cabinet • The cabinet is a group of the President’s closest advisors who lead executive branch departments.
What does the Const. say about the Cabinet? It doesn’t. It says the President may appoint certain officials with approval of the Senate. • Has every President had a cabinet? yes, (Andrew Jackson has his official cabinet & one called the “Kitchen Cabinet.”)
D. The First Cabinet Position Dept. Duties Person Secretary of State State Handles America’s relations with foreign countries -negotiates treaties -ambassadors Thomas Jefferson
Position Dept. Duties Person Secretary of the Treasury Treasury Gives economic advice to the Pres. Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War War (now Defense) Defense gives military advice to Pres. Henry Knox
Attorney General Justice gives legal advice to Exec. Branch Edmund Randolph Postmaster General (No longer on Cabinet) Postal Service Mail system Samuel Osgood
Washington had 5 Exec. Depts. How does this compare to today? there are 15 depts. today. The newest dept. is the Dept. of Homeland Security.
Today’s Cabinet • Secretary of State H. Clinton • Secretary of the Treasury T. Geithner • Secretary of Defense R. Gates • Attorney General E. Holder • Secretary of the Interior K. Salazar • Sec. of Commerce G. Locke 7. Sec. of Agriculture T. Vilsack
8. Sec. of Labor H. Solis 9. Sec. of Health & Human Services K. Sebelius 10. Sec. of Housing & Urban Development S. Donovan 11. Sec. of Transportation: R. LaHood 12. Sec. of Energy S. Chu 13. Sec of Education A. Duncan 14. Sec. of Veterans Affairs E. Shinseki 15. Sec. of Homeland Security J. Napolitano
Which of Washington’s Cabinet positions is no longer part of the cabinet? Postmaster Gen. • Today the Dept. of War is called The Dept. of Defense.
IV. Establishing a Federal Court System • The Const. calls for the Judicial Branch to be made of one supreme court and lower courts established by Congress. • Early in Washington’s Presidency, Congress passed a law establishing the federal court system: Federal Judiciary Act of 1789
C.The Federal Court System Board diagram and labels
Most cases begin and end here: District • To become a federal court judge: One must be appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
D. The U.S. Supreme Court • Judges are called: Justices • Head judge is called: Chief Justice 3. # of justices on the Supreme Court today: 9
Term of a federal court judge: Life • Who was the first Chief Justice? John Jay • Our present Chief Justice: John Roberts
V. Handling the Nation’s Money Troubles • Who was to develop a plan to deal with the debt problems? Alexander Hamilton
A. Hamilton’s Plan • The U.S. govt. will absorb the debts of the states from the war. Why? It is easier to organize payment of one amount rather than 14.
Formed the first National Bank. Purposes: It will be a place where the federal govt. may keep its money. It can earn money too. How did the bank earn money? Gives loans and charges interest. Invests in other businesses
Sell bonds A bond is a certificate that promises to pay the holder a certain amount of money when it matures on a certain date. How do savings bonds work? Buy from a bank;
The bond is purchased at a price of about half the bond’s value; The holder of the bond will be able to cash the bond in after a period of time for an increased value. When the bond matures it is worth close to the value printed on it.
4. Protective tariffs were established A tariff is a tax on certain imports. Who do they protect? They are to protect American goods & business from cheaper foreign goods & unfair competition.
5. Whiskey Tax It taxed what? All liquor made and sold in the U.S. including corn whiskey made by farmers. What group complained most? Western farmers Corn grew abundantly in the Central Plains.
To sell surplus corn, farmers left home and took it by wagon to far off cities. This was a long and difficult trip by wagon for many. Turning the corn into whiskey seemed to be a solution.
C. Whiskey Rebellion 1. Who? A group of Western Pennsylvanian farmers • What do they do? Protest marches Sang songs Made protest speeches Refused to pay the tax
What will Washington do? He sent 15,000 militia to stop the rebellion! • Why? He wanted to send a clear message the job of the President is to enforce the law.
How did the rebellion end? The militia showed up and the rebellion ended. Leaders promised to obey the law & Washington sent them home. 6. Message: “The Federal government will act firmly in times of crisis.”
VI Foreign Problems • Domestic issues refer to issues dealing within the U.S. • Foreign issues refer to issues outside the U.S. with other countries.
1789-1793 French Revolution • What event marks its beginning? The storming & taking of the Bastille (fortress/ prison)
What happened to the French king & queen? King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette, and much of their government were beheaded.
What was the “Reign of Terror?” After the fall of the govt. several groups struggled for power. Many executions; • Neighboring countries declared war on France. Why? They wanted to crush the dangerous ideas of overthrowing the govt. by revolution & put a king back on the throne.
-War: France v. Great Britain Austria Prussia Netherlands Spain -Who will France ask to help? U.S. Why? France helped us in our revolution.
Washington’s Answer: Neutrality Proclamation • To be neutral means to not take sides in a dispute. 2. French Reaction: U.S. has betrayed them. We have broken the treaty signed in the Amer. Rev. 2. U.S. Problem: the U.S. will trade with both sides.
H. Why did the U.S. stay neutral? U.S. is not ready for war. If we enter we may lose. War would increase our national debt. The treaty with France was with a govt. that no longer exists.
Both France and England Began stopping our trading ships & taking cargo. Impressment is the taking of crew from one country’s ships and forcing them to serve in a foreign navy.
VII. President John Adams • XYZ Affair • Adams will send 3 Americans to what country to discuss worsening problems over trade. France These three Americans wished to speak with Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand