Ch. 12: The Cold War:a state of diplomatic hostility b/w the US & the USSR from 1945 – 1991 (the end of WWII to the collapse of the Soviet Union 12.1: Development of the Cold War
I. Confrontation of the Superpowers • Seeds of the Cold War: • WWI & Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1917-18) • US aid in Russian Civil War (1918 – 1921) • Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact (1939) • Allied delay in launch of Western Front in WWII • Fear of communism
United States Encourage democracy to prevent the rise of Communism access to materials and markets Rebuild European governments create new markets for US goods Reunite Germany Soviet Union Encourage communism as part of a worldwide workers’ revolution Rebuild its war-ravaged economy Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders Keep Germany divided Superpower Goals in Europe
B. The Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945 • Divided into 4 occupation zones • Germany pay USSR for loss of life & property • USSR will hold free elections in its zone • Creation of the United Nations: • International organization of 50 countries to protect members against aggression
C. The United Nations UN peacekeepers Ban Ki-moon • The UN Charter created the General Assembly • Security Council • 11-member (today 15) body to investigate disputes, decide on peacekeeping & emergency action • 5 permanent members: US, GB, France, USSR, China plus 6 rotating members (today 10) • Each permanent member has the veto power • Advantages over the LON: peacekeeping force & no major power refused to join • Declaration of Human Rights (1948): preserves basic freedoms & rights of all individuals • Other UN agencies: WHO, UNICEF, UNESCO… UN Member States UNSC 2007
D. Soviet Domination in Eastern Europe • “Iron Curtain” • Stalin ignored promises of free elections made at Yalta, and set up pro-Soviet satellite countries in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland & Yugoslavia • “Communism and capitalism cannot co-exist; war b/w the US and the USSR is certain” - Stalin
E. US “Containment” of Soviet Communist Expansion • Truman’s foreign policy: Containment (1947) • Purpose: to block Soviet influence & prevent its expansion by creating alliances & helping weak countries resist USSR • Truman Doctrine (1947): use of max economic & military aid to keep countries from falling under Soviet control • Used to persuade Congress to give $400mn in aid to Turkey & Greece to help prevent communist revolutions Soviet tanks
3. The Marshall Plan, 1947 • Aid to any European country for agriculture, industry, and trade ($12.5 bn) to help Europe rebuild & recover • Helped 16 nations, including Yugoslavia over 5 years • Nations agreed to spend money on US goods; increased output by 64% in W. Europe • Stalin refused to allow any satellite states to accept money & set up COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), which ultimately failed
4. The Berlin Airlift, 1948 • Stalin opposed the creation of a West German state & tried to prevent it by blockading the capital, Berlin (also divided) • Cut off access in the W. zone of Berlin to transportation, food, water • US & GB flew food & supplies for 11 mos, every 3 min., brought in 2.3 mntons
II. Spread of the Cold War NATO membership today • Military Alliances • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) formed in 1949 • 10 W. European nations + US + Canada formed a defensive military alliance • Warsaw Pact (1955) • Soviet Union + 7 E. European nations formed their own military alliance • SEATO: 1955 SE Asian Treaty Org included the US, GB, France, Australia, Thailand, NZ, Pakistan, the Philippines formed to prevent Soviet aggression in the East • CENTO: mid-1950s to prevent Southern expansion of the USSR, included the US, GB, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan
B. The Arms Race • US had the Atomic Bomb; 1949 Soviet’s tested their 1st A-bomb • Hydrogen Bomb tested in 1952 • Soviets had the H-Bomb by 1953 • US President Eisenhower, elected in 1952, policy of “brinkmanship” • If the US or its Allies were attacked by the Soviets, US would retaliate instantly Today eight countries are possessing nuclear weapons. The five nuclear weapons states United States, Russia (former Soviet Union), United Kingdom, France and China, are the only countries allowed to have nuclear weapons according to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from 1970. All members of the United Nations except Israel, India and Pakistan have signed the NPT.
C. Space Race • 1957 Soviets developed ICBMs (inter-continental ballistic missiles) to launch the 1st satellite into space: Sputnik I, beating the US into space • 1958 US launched Apollo I • Affected funding for science & math education • 1960: U-2 incident: • CIA conducted secret high-altitude spy flights over the USSR. In 1960, pilot Gary Powers was shot down, arrested & sentenced to 10-years in prison (he was released in a trade deal after 19 mos.) Sputnik II, Laika Sputnik I U-2 plane Titan II ICBM
Ch. 16.1: The Cold War in East Asia Communism in China, The Korean War, The Vietnam War
I. Chinese Civil War, Part II: 1946 - 1949 • When Japan invaded China in 1937, China was involved in Civil War: KMT vs. CCP • Japanese invasion caused KMT & CCP to unite to fight common enemy • After Japan’s defeat in WWII, Civil War resumed Communist bases in Japanese occupied territory at the end of WWII
CCP under Mao Zedong Stronghold in NW China; supported by peasants Taught them guerilla tactics for use against Japan (and later, KMT) Taught literacy skills & to improve food production Set up political villages throughout N. China KMT under Chiang Kai-shek Controlled SW China, where mountains provided protection from Japanese 2.5mn man army aided by US – supplies & $1.5bn. (1942 – 1945) Most supplies & money went to corrupt officers or saved to fight Mao’s Red Army Refused to arm peasants & thus did not gain their support Chinese in WWII
A. Chinese Civil War • KMT advantages: • US involvement: sent an additional $2bn. in aid to KMT as part of “containment” policy • KMT outnumbered CCP 3-1 & were better equipped • Why did they lose? • Did not have popular support • Weak economy led to mass desertions of KMT soldiers to the Red Army • famine
II. China Becomes Communist, 1949 Fall of Shanghai • October 1, 1949: Mao proclaims control of The People’s Republic of China • Fuels anti-communist feelings in US • Chiang Kai-shek & KMT flee to island of Taiwan and establish The Republic of China under the Nationalist Party rule Red Army in Beijing
A. Two Chinas & the Cold War • The US refused to recognize Mao’s gov & the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China in the UN until 1972 • Soviets gave financial, military & technical aid to the PRC & signed a treaty of friendship in 1950 • US sought to expand its influence in Asia by limiting Soviet occupation of Japan & dividing Korea into a Soviet supported North & a US backed South
B. Mao’s Expansionist Goals • After taking power, Mao sought to unify & expand • Troops moved into Inner Mongolia, Tibet & India • Invasion of Tibet forced the Dalai Lama to flee to India, where he still lives today in exile
C. Chairman Mao’s Marxist Socialism • Economic restructuring most urgent goal b/c China was either at war or under occupation for last 50 years • Rural/agricultural reform • 80% population in countryside, but not land owners • Agrarian Reform Law of 1950 redistributed land to peasants, but killed over 1mn landlords who resisted policy • Collectivization b/w 1953-55 (200 – 300 families) • Women made equals; state supported child care • Industrial development: • Gov nationalized private companies • 1953 Mao launches Soviet-style 5-year plan doubling output of coal, cement, electricity & quadrupling steel production
D. The Great Leap Forward, 1958 – 1961“Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand” • a more ambitious program: The Great Leap Forward • Existing collectives were combined into communes w/ 30,000 people • Peasants organized into “production battalions” • Worked, ate, lived together in communal dorms; owned nothing • Led to crop failures & famine, which killed 20mn. • “backyard” steel industry led to poor quality manufactures "Take steel as the key link, leap forward in all fields". "Long live the General direction! Long live the Great Leap Forward! Long live the People's Commune!"
E. Mao’s Moderate Policies of the 1960s • As Sino-Soviet relations ended & Great Leap Forward failed, CCP implemented moderate policies • Farmers could live in own homes & sell crops privately • Factory workers could compete for higher wages, bonuses & promotions • Mao disapproved & questioned use of capitalistic methods believing it weakened social equality • 1966: Mao’s new campaign geared to youth to “learn revolution by making revolution” Mao & Khrushchev "Arise, all people of the world, to topple Imperialist America! To topple Soviet revisionism! To topple the reactionary parties of all nations!"
F. The Cultural Revolution, 1966 – 1976Eliminate the Four Olds: old ideas, old culture, old customs, old habits • Mao believed an atmosphere of constant struggle & revolutionary fervor would bring China to final stage of communism • Millions of high school & college students formed militia units: the Red Guard • Goal: to establish a society of peasants & workers in which all were equal • Heroes of the Cultural Rev were the peasants, who worked w/ their hands, whereas the intellectuals and artists – those who used their minds, were considered dangerous • Schools were closed, teachers attacked, former landlords targeted, parents, any symbols of authority & tradition • Many were sent to labor or “re-education” camps • Young people were sent to live and work with the peasants in rural villages • Thousands were killed, cultural relics, art, literature destroyed
G. Four Modernizations, China after Mao • By 1976, the Red Army was called in & disbanded the Red Guards • Deng Xiaoping & Zhou Enlai took over & restored order • Deng promoted new policies in industry, agriculture, technology, and national defense
H. Tiananmen Square, June 1989 • Major exception to Four Modernizations: democracy • No direct criticism of the gov Tiananmen Square: mass student demonstrations calling for Party leaders to resign, better living conditions, more freedom • Deng ordered tanks & troops to the square to remove the protesters; 500-2000 killed
III. The Korean War, 1950 - 1953 • Korea part of the Japanese Empire from 1905-1945 • At the end of WWII, Soviets occupied northern part of Korea & US troops occupied the south • After the Japanese surrender, the US & the USSR partitioned the country into two zones along the 38th parallel, & elections were to be held later to unify the country • As the Cold War intensified, those elections were never held & the country remained divided (Top) Civilians massacred by retreating communist forces during the Korean War are packed into trenches in Taejon, South Korea, October 1950. (Bottom) Suspected communist partisans, destined for execution, are taken away by South Korean soldiers.
A. United Nations 1st test • In June, 1950 the NK army invaded SK, which appealed to the UN for help • Security Council voted to send an international force to halt the attack (Why didn’t the Soviets veto that action?) • 15 nations sent troops, who were led by Douglas MacArthur under the UN flag • By Sept., NK controlled nearly all of the peninsula except for a small area in the SE • UN troops launched an amphibious attack at Inchon, behind NK lines, & met up with forces that landed at Pusan creating a pincer attack that drove the NK back nearly to the Chinese border President Truman and General Douglas MacArthur meet for the first time on Wake Island, October 14, 1950. Source: Truman Library.
B. China Enters the War • Nov. Chinese entered the war in the hopes of maintaining communist NK as a buffer zone to protect its borders • NK & Chinese forces pushed UN troops south & captured Seoul, the capital • By 1952, UN forces re-captured Seoul & the fighting resulted in a stalemate • An armistice was signed in July 1953 & the current border remains at the 38thparallel
IV. The Cold War in SE Asia • Colonies of the Western powers gained their independence after WWII • 1946: Philippines gained independence • 1948: Burma & 1957: Malaysia both gained independence from British rule • 1949: Netherlands, under pressure from US, granted independence to Indonesia (for fear of communist revolution) • France did not want to let go of Indochina
With both the Japanese and Vichy French defeated, Ho Chi Minh saw an opening and declared Vietnam's independence in September 1945. V. The Vietnam War Ho Chi Minh, with American support, organized a military organization known as the Viet Minh to fight against Japanese & Vichy French forces in the region, and rescue American aircrews forced to land in or bail out over Vietnam. A. 1st Indochina War (War of Independence; French-Indochina War), 1946-1954 • Began as an anti-colonial struggle b/w the Vietminh (led by Ho Chi Minh) against the imperialist French • Became part of the Cold War: • 1954: French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu & surrendered to Ho By this time, containment of communism was firmly entrenched as American foreign policy. President Truman decided to stick with the French and financed much, even most of the French military effort against the Vietnamese. He provided a modest program of economic and military aid to the French, who by this time were fighting to retain control over all Indochina. Captured French soldiers at Dien Bien Phu
1954: Geneva Conference divided Vietnam at 17th parallel: N. Vietnam – Communist & S. Vietnam – anti-communist gov backed by US & France led by Ngo Dinh Diem • 1956 free elections were to be held to re-unify the country; they never were • Laos & Cambodia gained independence under neutral gov
B. 2nd Indochina War (Vietnam War) Why did the US get involved? • Beginning in 1950, US sent economic aid & arms: • Needed France as ally against USSR • After “fall” of China in 1949, new fears about the rest of Asia: Eisenhower’s Domino Theory The situation was so bad that France urged American intervention. Despite pressure from the French, Ike refused to send in ground forces. He was amenable to providing airpower, however, which he saw as an increasingly important military capability.
How did the US escalate involvement? • Diem & other US backed S.V. leaders unpopular • By 1963, US feared a Vietcong takeover • Aug. 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • Pres. Johnson told Congress US destroyers were attacked by NV torpedo boats • Due to “unprovoked attack” Congress authorizes use of US troops & sustained bombing raids: Operation Rolling Thunder • 1963 – 65: military advisers • 1965: 1st ground troops at Da Nang • 1968: 500,000 troops sent
How did the US lose? • US powerful, well equipped, but lost to VC: VC advantages: • Guerilla war – knew terrain • Popular support US disadvantages: • Lost support of SV “pacification” • Lost support at home (by 1969, most Americans opposed the war): draft imposed, student protests, rising death toll shown nightly on the news, My Lai massacre, TET Offensive "Hey, hey, LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?"
C. Nixon’s “Vietnamization” 1969 • Nixon elected in 1968 w/ promise to end war through “Vietnamization” • secretly bombing Cambodia & Laos to take out the Ho Chi Minh Trail • Secret bombings discovered in 1970, leading to public protests: Kent State massacre – • Last troops left in 1973
D. 1975: Fall of Saigon • Communists captured Saigon & renamed it “Ho Chi Minh City”
U.S. interests and Soviet ideology combined with postwar nationalism to create a volatile mix of Cold War politics in Central America. VI. The Cold War Spreads • Division of the Post-War World: • First World: US & its Allies • Second World: USSR & its Allies • Third World/Developing Nations: newly independent, non-aligned • Latin America, Asia, Africa • Impoverished, politically unstable, ethnic/religious conflicts, lack of technology/ed • Cold War Strategies: • US & USSR each attempted to gain power & influence in the 3rd World • Supported revolutions, liberation, counter-revolutions • Use of spy agencies: CIA & KGB in covert ops & even assassinations • Provided military aid, built schools, transportation… The Arab-Israeli conflict and regional self-interest combined with the superpowers' agendas to create one of the Cold War's hottest spots.
VII. Cold War in Latin America Allende • US business interests controlled Latin American politics • Large gap b/w rich & poor; poor looked to communism & USSR to help • Post-war influence of nationalism & revolution A. Chile: • 1970: Marxist, Salvador Allende, freely elected president: caused fear of communist expansion • 1973: CIA helped launch a coup to assassinate & replace govw/ US supported Augusto Pinochet, a brutal military dictator who ruled until 1990 Pinochet
B. Cuba • Authoritarian & US backed leader, Fulgencio Batista, ruled from 1934 – 1958 • 1959: Fidel Castro & Che Guevara led a revolution, seizing Havana (1/1/59) • Land reform: nationalized all land, US banks, businesses, sugar mills/refineries • 1960: USSR agrees to buy Cuban sugar, causing Eisenhower to declare a trade embargo against Cuba • 1961: JFK broke off diplomatic ties w/ Cuba & supported a coup attempt: The Bay of Pigs • Led to USSR placing missiles in Cuba, discovered in 1962 by US spy plane Castro & Khrushchev
C. The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962“13 Days” October 1962 • In response to the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba, Sec. Def. Robert McNamara announced a blockade of Soviet ships & put US forces in Florida, ready to invade • Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, agreed to missile removal w/ condition that US removed missile sites in Turkey
VIII. Cold War in the Middle East: Iran • Clash of religious & secular values • Wealth of oil rich countries led to conflict b/w traditional Islamic values & modern Western materialism (often associated with “Americanism”) • Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, post-WWII leader of Iran, embraced W. style gov & British/US oil companies • Resented by Iranian nationalists (led by Mosaddeq), who forced Shah to flee in 1953, but restored by US • Tehran became modern & industrial, but a large % of pop living in poverty • Shah used brutal secret police (SAVAK) to put down opposition & wanted to limit power & influence of the Ayatollahs, who wanted Iran to be an Islamic state w/ Shari' a rule SAVAK agents arrested 1979 Mosaddeq
B. 1978: Shah Abdicates; Rule of Khomeini • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led Shah’s opposition from exile via taped messages, “Death to the Shah!” & “Down with America” • Riots in 1978 forced the Shah to abdicate & flee the country in Jan 1979 • Khomeini returned from exile to rule: banned W. influence, established Islamic law as the legal code & reinstated traditional Muslim values
C. Iranian Hostage Crisis, 1979 - 1981 • US President Carter (elected 1976) allowed the Shah to enter the US for cancer treatment, though he feared reprisals • Students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran in protest, taking 60 Americans hostage • Khomeini vowed to hold the hostages until the US released the Shah to stand trial & to repay billions of dollars he ”stole” from Iran • Women & minority hostages were released, but 53 remained for 444 days • Carter’s failure to end the hostage crisis led to Reagan’s election in 1980
D. Iran-Iraq War 1980 - 1988 • Increased tension b/w Iran & Iraq, which was ruled by Saddam Hussein as a secular state • War broke out b/w religious & secular countries, also b/w Shi’a Muslims (Iran) & Sunni Muslims (Iraq) • US secretly sold weapons to Iran, hoping to get hostages released (used $ from sale of weapons to aid contrarevolucionarios in Nicaragua): Iran-Contra Affair
E. Afghanistan • Independent, but influenced by Soviets in 1950s • 1970s: Muslim revolt threatened communist rule • 1979: Soviet invasion to support pro-commgov • Mujahideen, Afghan rebels, supplied & trained by US • US launched a grain embargo & boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympics, along w/ 62 other nations • 1989: Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev ordered withdrawal after 10-year occupation
IX. The Cold War “Thaws” • De-Stalinization 1. After Stalin’s death (1953) more moderate leaders ruled, giving the satellite states some independence, as long as they remained communist & allies of USSR 2. Nikita Khrushchev (ruled 1953 – 1964) publicly denounced Stalin for his brutal tactics & implemented “de-Stalinization” • Dismantling Stalin’s harsh programs, favoring moderate ones, calling for “peaceful competition” with capitalism & removing monuments of Stalin