Word-Composition Word-composition is a productive type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems. E.g.: campsite, bluebird, whitewash, in-laws, jumpsuit.
Types of composition • Neutral • Morphological • Syntactic
Neutral compounds Two stems are joined together without any connecting elements (i.e. they are juxtaposed): scarecrow, goldfish, crybaby (плакса).
Subtypes of neutral compounds • simple neutral compounds - consist of simple affixless stems: sunflower, bedroom, blackbird • derivational, or derived compounds - have affixes in their structure: long-legged, broad-minded, globe-trotter • contracted compounds - have a shortened stem in their structure (усеченный корень): H-bag (handbag), TV-set (television set), A-bomb (atomic bomb), V-day (victory day)
Morphological and syntactic compounds Morphological compounds - components are joined by a linking element (‘o’, ‘i’, ‘s’): videophone, microchip; tragicomic, handicraft; craftsman. Syntactic compounds are formed by the whole fragments of speech: man-of-war (военный корабль), forget-me-not, mother-in-law.
Types of compounds according to their meaning • Non-idiomatic - compounds whose meanings can be described as the sum of the meanings of their components: classroom, bedroom, homeland, evening-gown. • Idiomatic - the meaning of the compounds cannot be described as a mere sum of its components: blackboard, football, lady-killer; ladybird, tallboy (тумбочка), bluestocking.
The criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a word-combination • The graphic criterion: tallboy, waterfall, night-gown, film-star. • The semantic criterion: E.g. tallboy - a tall boy • The phonetic criterion: ́greenhouse, ́blackbird, ́tallboy - green ́house, black ́bird, tall ́boy.
The criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a word-combination • Morphological criterion: blackbird – a black bird blackbirds – the blackest birds I’ve ever seen; a black night bird Exceptions: passers-by, parks-supervisor
Abbreviation (contraction, shortening) • Initial shortening: NASA - National Aeronautics Space Administration, NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization, BBC – the British Broadcasting Corporation, MP – Member of Parliament • Clipping: prof, burger, bike, phone, specs, fridge, flu • Blending:brunch (breakfast+lunch), smog (smoke+fog), heliport (helicopter+aeroport).
Minor types of word-building • Onomatopoeia [ˌɔnəˌmætə'piːə]: hiss, buzz, meow, cock-a-doodle-doo, cuckoo. • Reduplication: bye-bye, ta-ta; ping-pong, chit-chat (болтовня, сплетничать), shilly-shally (колебаться), walkie-talkie, mish-mash (мешанина) • Back-formation: baby sitter => to babysit, beggar => to beg, burglar => to burgle, cobbler => to cobble