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Earth’s Forces

Earth’s Forces

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Earth’s Forces

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  1. Earth’s Forces Warm-Ups • In August 2011 , Hurricane Irene hit the east coast of the US and did millions of dollars worth of damage. • If you were the mayor of a city, which could be affected by a hurricane, how would you protect the city and its citizens? • Write at least 5 sentences

  2. How many different layers make up the Earth’s structure? What are they? • Inner Core • Outer Core • Mantle • Crust

  3. What is the Earth’s Core? • Solid metallic Inner Core • Liquid metallic Outer Core • Both made of iron and nickel

  4. What is the Mantle? • Surrounds the core • Soft layer of molten (melted) rock called magma!!!

  5. What is the Crust? • Thin layer of rock at the earth’s surface

  6. What is the Atmosphere? • Layer of gases surrounding the earth

  7. What is the Lithosphere? • Solid rock portion of the Earth’s surface

  8. What is the Hydrosphere? • All the water elements of the Earth • Oceans • Seas • Rivers • Lakes

  9. What is the Biosphere? • Where plants and animals live • Includes: Atmosphere, Lithosphere, & Hydrosphere

  10. What is Plate Tectonics? • Movement of large plates (crust) above magma in the mantle • What proof is there? • Fossils, plants and animals along coastlines of separated continents

  11. What is the theory of Continental Drift? • 1912 theory by Alfred Wegener • Earth once had a supercontinent (all connected) • Called “Pangea”

  12. Plate Boundaries Plates collide, separate, and shift along these boundaries

  13. What type of movements are there? • Divergent • Convergent: Subduction • Convergent: Collision • Transform

  14. Example: Sub-Duction Zone

  15. Example: Sea Floor Spreading

  16. Example: Transform Boundary San Andreas Fault-California What type of movement takes place? • Transform Movement

  17. How are Earthquakes measured? Seismograph Measures the size of waves created by the earthquake

  18. Earthquakes

  19. Review: Plate Tectonics • Plate Movement • Spreading – usually ocean floor • Sub-duction – form Volcanoes • Collision – form mountains • Sliding/Shearing – cause earthquakes • Boundaries – where plates meet • Divergent- moving apart • Convergent - collide • Transform – slide past each other

  20. Volcanoes • What is the Ring of Fire? • Most volcanoes located around the rim of the Pacific Ocean

  21. What force might have caused this?

  22. What force might have caused this?

  23. What force might have caused this?

  24. What force might have caused this?

  25. What is Weathering? Types of Weathering are… • Mechanical – When rocks and other minerals are broken into smaller pieces. • Chemical – When minerals are changed completely when they mix with water and air. Like metal changing to rust.

  26. What is Wind Erosion? • Loess is wind-blown silt, sand, and clay. • Can form sand dunes 100’s of feet deep!

  27. What is Water Erosion? • Precipitation • Mudslides • Avalanche

  28. What is Glacial Erosion? • Glaciation – changes in a landform made from a slowly moving sheet of ice (glacier) • Moraines – rocks left behind after a glacier moves • Creates new valleys, hills, or ridges

  29. What is soil, how is it made? • Through the process of weathering and erosion of rocks • Humus – quality of soil • Texture of the soil • Amount of organic material in the soil