Chapter 7: Structuring Arguments By: Andrew Ho, Kimberly Rodriguez, GianneCrosswhite
Two Sets of Reasoning • Inductive reasoning gathers up specific examples and draws a conclusion from them • Deductive reasoning is the reasoning that sets out a general principle and applies it to a specific case
The classic oration • It has six parts and was used by Greek and Roman rhetors. • Exordium: The writer tries to win the attention of the audience while introducing them to a subject or problem • Narratio: The writer presents the facts explaining what happened, who was involved and other details. It puts the argument in context • Partitio: the writer divides up the subject, explaining what the claim is, what the key issues are, and in what order the subject will be treated.
The classic oration • The six parts (cont.) • Confirmatio: The writer offers detailed support for the claim using both logical reasoning and factual evidence. • Refuatatio: The writer recognizes and argues against claims or evidence of the opposing side. • Peroratio: the writer summarizes the case and moves the audience to action.
Modernized version of the Classic oration • Introduction • Gains readers' interest and willingness to listen • Establishes your qualifications to write about your topic • Establishes some common ground with your audience • Demonstrates that you’re fair and unbiased • States your claim
Modernized version of the Classic oration • Background • Presents information, including personal narrative, that is important to your argument • Lines of Argument • Presents good reasons that support your claim • Alternative arguments • Examines other points of view that may be opposing while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of them and explains why your view is better than them.
Modernized version of the Classic oration • Conclusion • Summarizes the argument • Elaborate on the significance of your claim • Makes clear what you want the audience to think or do • Reinforces your credibility • Make an emotional appeal
Rogerian Argument • Richard E. Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth L. Pike developed this four-part structure. • Introduction: The writer describes an issue in a way that shows that he understands and respect any other position • Contexts: The writer describes the contexts in the way that alternative positions may be valid. • Writer’s position: the writer states his/her positions on the issue and presents the circumstances in which that opinion would be valid. • Benefits to opponent: the writer explains how their opponent would benefit from adopting his/her position
Rogerian Argument • The key to a successful Rogerian argument is a willingness to think of other positions and to be able to describe them fairly • The purpose isn’t to win over opponents but to get people and groups to work together
Toulmin argument • There are five elements of a Toulmin argument • Claim: What the writer is trying to prove • Qualifiers: Any limits you place on your claim • Reasons/evidende: support for your claim. Ex: • Personal Experience • Anecdotes • Facts Authorities • Warrants: Underlying assumptions that support your claim. Warrants tell the reader what your assumptions are. • Backing: Support for warrant