Overview • Administrivia • Position paper • Researching • The Internet
What’s a Position Paper It is not • A literature review • (e.g. the history of cats as housepets) • A “how-to” paper • (e.g. how to keep cats as housepets) • A pro and con paper • (e.g. the advantages and disadvantages of cats as housepets) • A “copy and paste” activity from a variety of sources
The Position Paper • Has three key parts: • Summary of an issue related to technology and education in K-12 schools • Summary of the various perspectives held on that issue • Presentation and defense of a clear and reasonable (but not wishy-washy) position on the issue • Referencing (minimum 5) to support your arguments • No more than 5 pages double-spaced • Academic writing
Defining the Position Paper • It is an argumentative or persuasive essay • A reasoned argument rather than an assertion of opinion • Assertion = “X is true” • E.g. Computers are beneficial in schools • Leaves people wondering: • WHY is this the case? • HOW is this done? • What evidence is there? (Is that really correct?)
A Reasoned Argument • Assertion = “X is true” • Backs it up with any of the following: • There are persuasive reasons why X could be true • There is plausible explanation of how X could occur. • There is evidence which suggest that X is in fact true • The strongest argument contains all three above
“Set the Stage” • The first paragraph or two should introduce • Your specific issue and the main perspectives on the issue • Your position (thesis statement) • Your arguments/areas your arguments will focus on • Do not waste valuable space • by starting with general statements • providing a general context of how beneficial computers are for the future, etc. or • a historical account unless it is specifically relevant to you argument • E.g. Up to recently, literature has suggested that guinea pigs were the extent to which apartment dwellers could consider as pets, however cats are…
What to keep in mind? • Goal: to persuade the reader (me) of your view. Think of it along the lines of a newspaper editorial. • (e.g. cats are the ideal housepets for working apartment dwellers) • Where you take a stance/position/specific view on a topic • While "yes/no" issues are tempting (e.g. "should computers be used for mathematics instruction?"), they are often too broad • Ideally a meaty issue with three or four possible positions that have been studied, such as • "Why do so few women enter careers in high technology? Should schools try to change this, and if so how could it be done?"
Components • Once you know your stance, make it clear • Cats are ideal pets for working apartment dwellers • Then find 3 or 4 arguments to support it • (Broad) Due to their 1. need for little space, 2. cleanliness, and 3. independence • (Narrower) From a psycho-social perspective. Cats 1. provide rich interactions, 2. are independent when left alone, 3. do not require socialization with other cats, and 4. can remain indoors without psychological problems. • For each argument look for supporting examples from articles
“Strength” in Citations [Cats] “Need for little space” • Reference to support the argument: Cats are suitable for smaller homes because their compact size enables to live in smaller spaces (Fuzzy, 2002). • References to provide evidence to support the argument: Cats are suitable for smaller homes because their compact size enables them to live in smaller spaces. Morris (1999) investigated the relationship between housing size and longevity, health and temperament among 596 cats. He found no differences even when housing consisted of 250 square feet. [anticipate a “dog” argument] A study by Rover (2000) however, suggests a negative relationship between temperament and housing size for dogs.
Logic and Arguments • Ensure that your arguments are organized logically, related to each other and flow well from one to the other • Try to anticipate counterarguments, present them and then refute them with referenced supporting material • Avoid circular reasoning: • E.g. Media literacy education is needed to improve media literacy. Instead: Media literacy is needed because it: • enables students to search the internet more efficiently (cite studies that have found this)
Summary • Includes your position statement • Includes each of your arguments • May have some additional ideas/suggestions • Ties your paper together in a nice package to try to “sell me on your idea” (in an academic way)
Position Paper Grading • 20% - Description of the issue and the various perspectives held • 25% - Presentation of your own position on the issue • 30% - Effective argument for your position (using references) • 10% - Closing summary of your argument • 15% - Overall clarity of presentation, effective use of English and format requirements met
Broad Areas for Position Paper • Media awareness or media literacy • Software design and use for Elementary students • Software design and use for Secondary students • Information Technology policy in schools • Information Technology in the school curriculum • Access and equity with regard to computing resources in schools
More Position Paper Ideas • Technology and particular subject matter • ESL, History • Technology and the socialization of children • Technology and children with learning disabilities or special needs • Technology in the primary grades • Technology and children’s health • Particular software applications for the classroom • Tutoring systems • Learning environments and simulations • Productivity tools • CMC tools • Equity and access to technology • The internet in schools, mixing adult and children’s cultures • Computers and commercialization in the schools
Referencing online sources • http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html Online periodical: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source. Online document: Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Activity • Take a few minutes to think about your position paper topic and jot it down • Discuss your topic with Stephanie if needed
Pertinent Searches • What is a scholarly journal? http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/publicationtypes/periodicaltypes.htm • What’s ERIC? http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/subjectguides/educ/ERIC/ERIC.htm • To access ERIC http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchtools/databases/dbofdb.htm?DatabaseID=374
SFU library • http://www.lib.sfu.ca • Ask Us Live reference help • Electronic journals • Subject area searches • Education: ERIC, CBCA • Psychology: PsychInfo • Sociology: Humanities & Social Science Index
Library pages • Education information resources • http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/subjectguides/educ/education.htm • eLearning resources • http://www.lib.sfu.ca/about/surrey/e-learning.htm • Educational Technology resources • http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/subjectguides/educ/eductech.htm
Online resources • Search engine watch • http://searchenginewatch.com/ • Evaluating websites • http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchtools/internetsearch/webevaluation.htm
Search Engines • List of major search engines • http://searchenginewatch.com/links/major.html • http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchtools/internetsearch/index.htm • Basic techniques • Boolean searches (+/-) (and/or/and not) • +Saturn – car • Saturn and not car (i.e. Alta vista advanced search) • (car or automobile or vehicle) and (buy or purchase) and used • Quotations for words side-by-side • “global warming” • Astericks (*) • math*
Activity and More Info • Activity: Go to • http://home.sprintmail.com/~debflanagan/main.html • Mid-page: “Use key search engines effectively…” • Select a search engine and “practice searching” your position paper topic • For more information • http://www.searchengines.com/search_engines_101.html • http://www.sc.edu/beaufort/library/bones.html
Topic #1: The Internet • What is the Internet? • How did the internet start? (Who/what started it?) • Is the Internet and the World Wide Web the same?
Topic #2: Computer Networking • What is Computer Networking? (Definition) • What are advantages and disadvantages to networking? • There are two kinds of networks (WAN and LAN). Describe them.
Models for using the internet in K-12 • Content Source • Replacing or augmenting textbooks or the library • Pedagogical Inspiration • Ministry guidelines, lesson plans • Professional resources • Online courses, professional communities, etc. • Extending curriculum outside the classroom • Virtual Field Trips • Electronic guest appearances • Cultural exchanges • Ask-an-Expert services • Tutoring • Telementoring
Resource Examples • PBS Teacher Source • http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/teachtech.htm • K-12 Science • http://k12science.org/currichome.html • Ask ERIC • http://www.askeric.org/cgi-bin/res.cgi/Educational_Technology
For Next Week • Identify your position paper topic. • Participate in conferencing. • Complete and submit Assignment #3 by midnight prior to class.