CHAPTER 12BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA • Bantu Migration-spread of Bantu language west to central and southern Africa • Trade Salt for Gold • Spread of Islam and Arabic • Slavery • Colonialization • Issues Today Yes, Neumo did this one surprised?
Bantus • When Bantu-speaking farmers migrated, Bantu languages spread throughout much of central and southern Africa • You can still hear the languages spoken today • Swahili is a form of Bantu and Arabic—mostly spoken in Eastern Africa
Bantus • The ancient Bantu peoples lived in Sub-Saharan Africa. • Sub-Saharan means South of the Sahara Desert • When they began to migrate and trade with central and south Africa, their knowledge of iron making, religious practices, and language spread
Ancestors of the Bantus make up 2/3 of today’s African population. They inhabit the Southern and Eastern part of the continent. The Bantus are known for being more of a language group rather than a distinct ethnic group. The most widely spoken Bantu language is Swahili. This is spoken by 50 million Africans in Eastern Africa.
Salt for Gold TRADE
Salt for Gold NORTH WEST The build up of the trans-Saharan trade routes developed because of the availability of the camel and the need to trade salt for gold.
West Africa had the GoldNorth Africa had the Salt • Around the time that East and North African city-states were developing, great trading areas arose on the west side of the continent. • Trade routes were developed across the Sahara desert trading salt for gold. • With the trade, came the diffusion of religion and language
Salt for Gold • Tombuctu, Mali, becomes a major trading city. It is on the edge of the Sahara and the Sahel. “Crossroads of the caravans” • Northern traders spread the religion of Islam and the Arabic language along their routes
West Coast had more than gold, also: ivory, spices, and slaves Caravan crossing Ahaggar Mts-central Sahara Caravan Crossing More Sahara Desert
Salt for Gold • City-states—a city that has its own traditions, government and laws. It is both a city and country. The city controls much of the surrounding land. • Trans-Sahara route—Trans means across, Sahara—place, route— • Diffusion—spreading, mixing of cultures
COLONIALIZATION OF AFRICA
Colonialism • Top 3 reasons for Europe coming and taking over Africa • 1. Industrial Revolution--resources • 2. Nationalism—who has power • 3. Spread Christianity • Western Hemisphere controlled by the USA
2 EuropeanNationalism Source for Raw Materials 3 MissionaryActivity Industrial Revolution 1 European Motives For Colonization Markets forFinishedGoods Military& NavalBases EuropeanRacism Places toDumpUnwanted/Excess Popul. HumanitarianReasons Soc. & Eco.Opportunities
1. Where Is Dr. Livingstone? DoctorLivingstone,I Presume? Sir Henry Morton Stanley Dr. DavidLivingstone
2. What is the Source of the Nile? Sir Richard Burton John Speke
Africa in 1914
European Claims 1914 The artificial boundaries created by the Europeans had the effect of bringing together many different ethnic people within a nation, that did not reflect nor have the ability to accommodate or provide for, the cultural and ethnic diversity.
Scramble for Africa • Also known as the Race for Africa • All of this territory claiming by European nations caused a competitive rush for territory in Africa • As a result, Germany initiated a conference in 1884 for European nations to regulate the rush for territory
When the European Colonialists came, they had the Bible, we had the land. They said, “Let’s close our eyes and Pray.” When we opened our eyes, we had the Bible, and they had the land.” Randall Robinson
The Atlantic Slave Trade Before the 1500’s, slavery was common in some parts of Africa. Then the European powers began to establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere—North, Central, South America The Europeans practiced a different type of slavery—you couldn’t buy your way out or win your way out European settlers in the Americas needed workers for their mines and plantations. The settlers know Africans were skilled farmers, miners, and metal workers. By the 1600’s, The slave trade evolved out or traders exchanging goods
Slave ships were packed head to toe Many did not make the trip. Africans transporting Africans
The Atlantic Slave Trade Some African nations refused to take part Some sold people they captured during battles or kidnapping Some Africans grew wealthy from the slave trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade Overall, the slave trade was a disaster for Africa West Africa especially—lost much of its population Robbed of skilled workers, and with many families torn apart, many African societies broke down When the slave trade ended, natural resources were raided
Slavery Still Exists Today • Slavery in Africa continues today. Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans - as did a slave trade that exported millions of sub-Saharan Africans to North Africa, the Middle East, and the Persian Gulf.
INDEPENDENCE FOR AFRICAN COUNTRIES
2 Countries Remained • Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent during colonization • Liberia—set up by former American Slaves
Ethiopia • Ethiopia was able to resist attempts of colonization by the British and particularly by the Italians. Italy was able to colonize a part of ancient Ethiopia, the area along the Red Sea. This was the colony and now the independent country of Eritrea. • Ethiopians won a decisive victory over Italy at the Battle of Adowa. 4,000 Italian soldiers were killed.
South Africa • The Zulus showed strong resistance to the British under the leadership of King Cetshwayo at Isandhlawana. They defeated a force of 8,000 European soldiers, killing 1,600. This was the single greatest defeat suffered by the British in their colonial endeavors in Africa and Asia.
Independence • WWII would inspire many people throughout Africa to seek freedom for their own countries. • African colonies played a major role during the war. African soldiers fought and died to help free Europe from Nazi conquest. • “We have been told what we fought for. That is FREEDOM.”
Notice the Years ofIndependence African Countries are young! Not Use to governing themselves. Left in economic shambles Different ways to become Independent—Conflict/Peace Some European powers fought to keep, some did not
Many new governments unstable • New leaders spent years working for independence. • The old colonial powers did little to prepare new leadership • As a result, many new governments in Africa were unstable • Many governments looked to the US and USSR for stability • Many governments have been a constant turnover of dictators
What is a Conflict Diamond? Conflict diamonds are diamonds that originate from areas controlled by forces or factions opposed to legitimate and internationally recognized governments, and are used to fund military action in opposition to those governments, or in contravention of the decisions of the Security Council. Legitimate diamonds lead to peace and economic development Conflict diamonds finance illegal armies and sufferings
Diseases • HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death in many areas of Africa • Misinformation or no information doesn’t help • Lack of money for drugs or lack of drugs