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  1. Water Treatment CE 326 Principles of Environmental Engineering Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Iowa State University March 3, 2008 Tim Ellis, Ph.D., P.E.

  2. Fig 4-8: Flow Diagram of conventional surface water treatment plant (“filtration plant”)

  3. Fig 4-8: Flow diagram of water softening plant

  4. Coagulation = Charge reductionFlocculation = Contact of particles

  5. Fig 4-10: Effect of salt on electric potential

  6. Fig 4-11: Effect of valence on electric potential

  7. Fig 4-13: results from jar test

  8. Alkalinity in CoagulationNeeded to neutralize acid formed

  9. Paddle Mixer Details

  10. Paddle Mixers in Left Chamber and Flocculators in Right Two Chambers

  11. Fig 4-35: Settling in an upflow clarifier

  12. Fig 4-32: Zones of sedimentation on a horizontal flow clarifier

  13. Fig 4-37: Partial solids removal in ideal sedimentation tank

  14. Let’s say v0 = 0.20 mm/sWhat % removal for particles with settlingvelocity = 0.15 mm/s?

  15. Fig 4-43: Typical gravity filter box

  16. Fig 4-44: Operation of rapid sand filter

  17. Manual Control Panel in Water Treatment Plant

  18. Lime slaker and feed system.

  19. Upflow solids contact tank. Effluent weir on right.

  20. Settling tank with radial weirs

  21. Rapid sand filter with exposed under drain block.Wash water troughs run from left into gullet on right.

  22. Rapid sand filter with water level just below backwash troughs. Note iron stain at high water line.

  23. Rapid sand filter during filtration.Reflection shows water level above gullet and backwash troughs.

  24. Rotameter used to measure flowrate of gaseous chlorine into water.

  25. Hydrofluorosilicic acid drum and pump metering system for feeding fluoride into water.

  26. Softening sludge lagoon. Winter view shows ice (light blue) where supernatant water is stnading.

  27. Overview of water treatment plant showing sludge lagoons and building housing treatment facilities.