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SACO (The Subject Authority Component of the PCC):

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  1. SACO (The Subject Authority Component of the PCC): An Introduction and Discussion of McGill’s Experience Karen Jensen McGill University

  2. Introduction • SACO is the subject authority component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloguing • History • Usefulness to Canadian libraries and their users • How to join • Practical issues • Examples of McGill University’s experiences since 1999 • Demonstration CLA 2009 National Conference

  3. History (From: SACO Participants' Manual) • Until the 1980s, catalogers from outside the Library of Congress had no easy means to suggest additions or changes to LCSH and LCC. • LCSH and LCC were constructed solely on the basis on materials in LC's collections. • If a library acquired an item on a topic that was not covered by materials in LC’s collections, it had to assign subject headings and/or classification numbers that were too general, or it had to maintain a supplemental list of locally-created headings and classification numbers. • The Library of Congress realized that it could take advantage of bibliographic and authority records created by other libraries and that cooperation was a cost-effective means of developing and enhancing LCSH and LCC. CLA 2009 National Conference

  4. Early Examples: Rape (Plant) Generally, LCSH terms are approved on the basis of what is standard in contemporary American English usage. Prefer terms in general use over jargon and sometimes over technical terms, especially when still precise. Need to add: 670 $a Web. 3 $b (Rape: an annual herb, Brassica napus) CLA 2009 National Conference

  5. Early Examples: Rutabaga CLA 2009 National Conference

  6. Brassica napus Varieties Rape or Canola (Canadian Oilseed, Low-Acid) Rutabaga From Wikimedia Commons. Copyright 2006 by Tilo Hauke. From Copyright 2003 by S. Christman CLA 2009 National Conference

  7. Common names: Rape, Turnip Varieties: Rape, Siberian Kale CLA 2009 National Conference

  8. History • McGill first participated in SACO in 1999, with help from John Mitchell, Library of Congress. • In 2004, SACO became an institutional membership-based program of the PCC. • McGill formally joined in April 2005, and participated in the PCC Standing Committee on Training Task Group to Update the SACO Participants’ Manual (written by Adam Schiff, University of Washington Libraries). • Members of any of the other PCC programs are automatically considered to be SACO members. • In 2008, 116 institutions created 3,116 new subject authority records and revised 1,125 existing records through SACO. Coop. processed 2,529 shelflisting requests for literary authors and 235 new LC Classification proposals. CLA 2009 National Conference

  9. Usefulness(From: SACO Participants' Manual) • LC's collections and those of other libraries are not the same; a library might collect in subjects not collected by LC or at a much greater depth than LC; new disciplines and topics are always emerging. • Participation allows catalogers to assign subject headings at the appropriate level of specificity. • Cooperative cataloging benefits the entire library community and allows libraries to share their knowledge and expertise; everyone can contribute to developing a shared authority file and LCSH and LCC become more representative of everyone’s collections. • By getting new headings into LCSH and establishing new numbers in LCC, libraries don't have to maintain specialized locally-created lists of headings and classification numbers. CLA 2009 National Conference

  10. Usefulness(From: SACO Participants' Manual) • Headings contributed by SACO participants frequently get used by LC and other libraries for materials that they acquire; outside libraries often receive and catalog materials needing new subjects or classification numbers more quickly than LC can. • Libraries can add useful cross-references to existing headings and change obsolete terms to more current terminology. • Establishing new numbers and Cutters in LCC means that all libraries using LCC will use the same numbers for materials on the same subject, making copy cataloging and shelflisting simpler and more reliable. • It serves users' needs. • It is intellectually stimulating and satisfying to do research and to see one's work included in the national authority file and LCSH/LCC. CLA 2009 National Conference

  11. How to Join • Submit an application for institutional SACO membership, available on the SACO home page at • Commit to submitting 10-12 proposals (of any kind) per year. • Join or form a SACO funnel project. • Funnel projects consist of a group of libraries (or catalogers from various libraries) that have joined together to contribute subject authority records and/or classification numbers. • Proposals are funneled through the coordinator of the project, who then sends them on to LC. CLA 2009 National Conference

  12. Direct Contribution vs. Funnel Contribution • Individual institutional SACO partners typically have a requirement to contribute a minimum of 10 new/changed subject authority records per year. • Funnels generally consist of libraries contributing at a more modest level. • Some funnels may be composed of individuals working in a particular language or subject specialty within larger institutions. • Funnels are coordinated projects to receive training and to have SACO records reviewed by a specialist in a specific language, topic, or format. CLA 2009 National Conference

  13. Practical Issues • There are no formal training requirements for participation in SACO. • SACO participants need not belong to a particular bibliographic utility nor even catalog in an online environment in order to submit subject heading and classification proposals. • Expected to have access to and familiarity with the key documentation containing the policies and practices used by LC in subject heading and classification assignment and in the creation of new subject headings and classification numbers. CLA 2009 National Conference

  14. Key Documentation For subject headings: • Library of Congress Subject Headings • SUBJECT HEADINGS MANUAL • FREE-FLOATING SUBDIVISIONS: An Alphabetical Index For classification numbers: • CLASSIFICATION AND SHELFLISTING MANUAL • Library of Congress Classification Schedules (including the full run of Additions and Changes; or, one of the commercially available versions of the schedules) CLA 2009 National Conference

  15. MARC Organization Code • Canadian libraries submitting proposals must have a MARC organization code assigned to them by Library and Archives Canada. • Canadian library symbols can be searched at • Instructions for requesting a code from Library and Archives Canada may be found on its Interlibrary Loan home page at CLA 2009 National Conference

  16. SACO Coordinator • responsible for monitoring the SACO home page and SACOLIST electronic discussion • trains other staff in subject cataloging and SACO policies, reviews proposals from individual catalogers before they are sent to LC • maintains a central file of in-process proposals in order to keep local statistics and check on the status of proposals with LC staff • announces when proposals have been approved CLA 2009 National Conference

  17. Cooperative Cataloging Team • If a SACO library does not have an assigned liaison, Cooperative Cataloging staff will respond to questions and proposals sent to the general SACO account ( • Anthony R.D. Franks Team Leader/INTCO Coordinator • Cooperative Cataloging Program Specialists: James B. Childress, Paul E. Frank, Gracie Gilliam, John N. Mitchell, Jiping Wu • Carolyn R. Sturtevant BIBCO/NACO Coordinator CLA 2009 National Conference

  18. H 1332  Biological Names BACKGROUND:  Formerly, headings for names of animals and plants at particular taxonomic levels were established only when a work about an organism at that specific level was cataloged.  In the early 1970s, the practice was adopted of always making the BT reference from a heading at the next higher level along the hierarchy of species-genus-family-order-class-phylum even if it meant establishing a heading for which no work had been cataloged.  CLA 2009 National Conference

  19. H 13322. Form of name. a. Latin or common • Prefer the common name if it is in popular use and unambiguous, using as reference sources Web. 3, other general dictionaries or encyclopedias, recent textbooks, popular field guides, and lists of official common names issued by societies or government agencies.  • Prefer the common name for animals and plants of economic importance, such as pests or cultivated plants.  • Prefer Latin when the common name represents several levels (species, genus, family) or the term is not in general lay usage.  CLA 2009 National Conference

  20. H 13322. Form of name. a. Latin or common • In general, for organisms occurring only in foreign countries, prefer the Latin name unless an English common name is found in standard reference sources. • However, a local common name may be used if it does not conflict with a common name from the United States. • Do not begin a heading for the name of a plant or animal with the word common, unless the name appears in that form in Web. 3 or some other authoritative source. CLA 2009 National Conference

  21. Common sea hare [proposed] 019 field shows record has been reviewed and migrated to the “Master” file. LC’s Policy and Standards Division (formerly CPSO) adds to a weekly list. 952 (Comments) field gives informational notes to SACO Liaison. CLA 2009 National Conference

  22. Lined sea hare [proposed] 670 (Work cat.) field includes subtitle only because term or variant appears there. N.B. Unusually long or multiple 670 fields may cause the system to react on them. Watch for the automatically system-generated email confirming receipt of the proposal. CLA 2009 National Conference

  23. H 13322. Form of name c. Parenthetical qualifiers Add a parenthetical qualifier when necessary to distinguish two or more meanings of the same term.  Use the singular form to qualify species and the plural for higher taxonomic levels. Examples: • Divers (Birds) vs. Divers  [the people] • Cranes (Birds) vs. Cranes, derricks, etc. • Redhead (Bird) vs. Redheads  [the people] • Docks (Plants) vs. Docks  [for boats] CLA 2009 National Conference

  24. Woolly breeches (Plant) Saco Liaison added SCM Memo H 1332 to explain need to add (Plant). CLA 2009 National Conference

  25. H 13323.  Authorities for names. Preference is given to: • (1)   The authorities followed by the Smithsonian Institution's taxonomists.  • (2)   Work cataloged, when published by a renowned research institute.  Use caution with foreign classifications that may conflict with American practice. • (3)   Taxonomic lists issued by American societies or government agencies, such as the American Entomological Society, United States Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, etc. • (4)   General thesauri and classifications such as the McGraw-Hill Synopsis, FAO lists, Wilson's Biological & Agricultural Index. • (5)   Web. 3 and other general reference books, textbooks, and field guides. CLA 2009 National Conference

  26. Web. 3 Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged. Springfield, Mass. : Merriam-Webster,c2002. CLA 2009 National Conference

  27. Web Resources for SACO Proposals CLA 2009 National Conference

  28. H 1332 6.  Classification numbers Provide classification numbers in 053 field of records for animal and plant headings following the procedures in H 200 sec. 4, as specifically as the QL (Zoology) and QK (Botany) schedules allow, which is usually at the family level.  Also provide classification numbers from the SB (Plant culture), SD (Forestry), and SF (Animal culture) schedules for crops, pests, domestic animals, and pets when specific numbers exist in those schedules. Because it is possible for works about many animals and plants to class in either Q or S, depending on context, generally supply qualifiers for the classification numbers.  Use (Zoology) or (Protozoology) for QL and (Botany), (Algology), or (Mycology) for QK. CLA 2009 National Conference

  29. Switchgrass Proposal in LC Authorities had 952 (Comments) field: New class # has already been proposed, SB201.S95. 670 (Work cat.) subfield $b (information found) is necessary only to support the form and/or identification of the 1XX, 4XX and sometimes the 5XX fields. CLA 2009 National Conference

  30. Carrot weevil Established 2005. 2008, LC deleted sh 85098314, and added 450, 670 to explain earlier form, Parsley stalk weevil. CLA 2009 National Conference

  31. Green and black poison dart frog From Animal Diversity Web. Copyright 2002 by Tanya Dewey. LC changed 150 from “Green poison frog” after additional research in June and August. Authority research demonstrates the form of term proposed is found in existing literature (literary warrant). CLA 2009 National Conference

  32. Spotted lady beetle [proposed] From BugGuide. Copyright 2008 by Darcy Ashton. Reprinted with permission. CLA 2009 National Conference

  33. Lactoglobulins [proposed] No 019 field is present. The proposal has been downloaded from the Web form and added to the LC authorities. Coop. staff will review before forwarding to the Policy and Standards Division (formerly CPSO). CLA 2009 National Conference

  34. H 203  Citation of Sources7.  Citing sources that are not publications a.  BGN (U.S. Board on Geographic Names) • In most cases, information is obtained from BGN via the World Wide Web, using the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) or GEOnet Names Server (GNS) (cf. H 690, sec. 1).  • Example: 670 ## $a GEOnet, May 12, 2009$b(Matano, Danau (BGN Standard); Matana, Danau (Variant); Matana-Meer (Variant); Matano-Meer (Variant)). CLA 2009 National Conference

  35. H 203  Citation of Sources7.  Citing sources that are not publications d.  Citing the World Wide Web • Give the name of the Web site and the date it was consulted.  In subfield $b, give a location, if appropriate, and the information found. • Example: 670 ## $a Geographical Names of Canada Web site, May 13, 2009$b (Canagagigue Creek; Ontario; Location: Waterloo; Wellington; Latitude - Longitude: 43deg. 34min. 26sec. N - 80deg. 29min. 25sec. W) • Example: 670 ## $a AMICUS, May 13, 2009$b (Pingualuit, Cratère des (Québec) (RVM); Seen From: Nouveau-Québec, Cratère du (Québec)) • Note:  Catalogers are strongly discouraged from providing a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) in the 670 field, since URIs are unstable, and addresses often change.  CLA 2009 National Conference

  36. H 203  Citation of Sources8.  Citing sources in which the heading was not found • Use the 675 field to cite sources that were consulted but do not use the term or any variation of it.  The same style as that used for citing sources that support the proposal may be used.  No further data should be provided.  In the online record, the 675 field is not repeatable.  Multiple sources appear in sequential $a subfields. • Example:675 ## $a Web. geog.; $a Lippincott CLA 2009 National Conference

  37. H 1919.5  Nationalities BACKGROUND:  Until 1981, headings for nationalities living in specific places outside their native country were formulated as [nationality] in [place]; a nationality living in several countries was expressed as [nationality] in foreign countries.  Headings of the type [nationality] in [place] and [nationality] in foreign countries have been converted to [topic]–[place].  The geographic subdivision –Foreign countries has replaced the phrase [...] in foreign countries.  This instruction sheet provides guidelines for establishing and assigning headings for nationalities. CLA 2009 National Conference

  38. H 1919.5 b.  Use of geographic subdivision • These headings are used only to designate the presence of nationalities outside their native countries.  Therefore, they are never assigned without local subdivision.  Whenever a nationality heading is assigned, further subdivide it by the place where the presence of the nationality is being discussed, for example, Germans–Brazil. • With the exception of American ethnic groups, specific nationalities in foreign countries are designated in this manner, rather than by composite names such as German Brazilians. • Note:  Do not confuse this type of prohibited composite nationality name with names for true ethnic groups, i.e. groups with a common cultural and linguistic heritage, whose names are by chance in composite form, such as French-Canadians. CLA 2009 National Conference

  39. H 690  Formulating Geographic Headings BACKGROUND:  Headings for geographic names fall into two categories:  (1) names of political jurisdictions, and (2) non-jurisdictional geographic names.  Headings in the first category are established according to descriptive cataloging conventions with authority records that reside in the name authority file.  Headings in the second category are established according to guidelines in this instruction sheet with authority records that reside in the subject authority file.  Headings for entities having geographic extent, including certain types of engineering constructions, are treated as geographic headings.  CLA 2009 National Conference

  40. H 690  Formulating Geographic Headings The following is part of the representative list of non-jurisdictional geographic names: • Geographic features (for example, caves, deserts, non-jurisdictional islands, lakes, mountains, ocean currents, plains, rivers, seas, steppes, undersea features) • Geologic basins, geologic formations, etc. • Parks, reserves, refuges, recreation areas, etc. • Roads, streets, trails • Valleys CLA 2009 National Conference

  41. 3.  Selecting the form of the heading.b.  English vs. vernacular form • Select the English form of the name whenever possible, especially for geographic features. Vernacular English Passo del San Gottardo Saint Gotthard Pass Fujiyama Mount Fuji Øresund The Sound Peipsi järv Lake Peipus • If no English form is found, construct an English heading by translating the generic term into English.  CLA 2009 National Conference

  42. 4.  Arrangement of elements appearing in the name • If necessary, rearrange the elements of the name so that the distinctive portion of the name occurs in the initial position. • a.  Names in English.  For entities in English-speaking countries, and for entities that have a conventional English name, invert the heading if necessary to put the distinctive portion of the name in the initial position. English Name Name Inverted Gulf of Saint Lawrence Saint Lawrence, Gulf of Lake Champlain Champlain, Lake Mount Robson Robson, Mount River Wye Wye, River CLA 2009 National Conference

  43. 4.  Arrangement of elements appearing in the name b.  Names in foreign languages.  Translate the name and rearrange the elements to put the distinctive portion of the name in the initial position.  Since the resulting heading is not inverted, do not put a comma between the elements.  VernacularFinal Form of Heading Rivière L'Assomption L'Assomption River Rivière des Mille Iles Mille Iles River Lac à l'Eau Jaune Eau Jaune Lake CLA 2009 National Conference

  44. L'Assomption River (Québec) CLA 2009 National Conference

  45. H 810  Qualification of Geographic Headings • Geographic headings that do not represent potential descriptive access points, including headings for geographic features, regions, parks, etc., are generally established in the subject authority file. • The procedures described in this instruction sheet apply only to the choice and form of the qualifiers for geographic headings. CLA 2009 National Conference

  46. H 810  Qualification of Geographic Headings • H 810 (1) General rule.  Qualify subject headings representing geographic entities by the name of the country or countries in which they are located, except for the following: Australia state Canada province Great Britain constituent country Malaysia state United States state Note:  Serbia and Montenegro, the successor of Yugoslavia, is no longer an exception because it split into two separate countries in 2006. CLA 2009 National Conference

  47. H 810  Qualification of Geographic Headings • H 810 (7) Undersea features. Generally do not qualify undersea features in international waters.  If it is necessary to resolve a conflict or remove ambiguity, add the body of water as a qualifier, for example, Central Slope (Gulf of Mexico).  For undersea features within territorial limits, qualify by the name of the appropriate jurisdiction, for example, Old Orchard Shoal (N.Y.) or Grand Bahama Bank (Bahamas). CLA 2009 National Conference

  48. Scotian Shelf Proposal in LC Authorities had 952 (SCM Memo) field: SCM H 810--7 Undersea features. Proposed geographic subdivision in 550 was Nova Scotia, corrected to North Atlantic Ocean. CLA 2009 National Conference

  49. Library of Congress Authorities Authority Headings Search CLA 2009 National Conference

  50. Pingualuit Crater (Québec) [proposed] Copy and paste diacritics preceding the affected letter (e.g., M(acute)exico). 952 field (Comments/Additional 4XX, 5XX, or 670 fields) has extra 451 that could not fit on the Web form. CLA 2009 National Conference