America On the World Stage1899-1909&Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt1901-1912 Part I A.P. US History Mr. Houze
Be able to: Explain the ways in which (a) the Boxer Rebellion, (b) the Open Door notes, and (c) the Portsmouth and Algeciras conferences signaled a new departure for American foreign policy.
Anti-Imperialists The ‘Spanish-American War’, the ‘Filipino Insurrection’, and U.S. acquisition of overseas possessions all combined to produce a fierce domestic debate over imperialism!
Anti-Imperialists • In America, a vocal minority composed of Democrats and former ‘Populists’ objected to America’s new empire as unwise, immoral, unconstitutional, and against America’s basic principles! – among them were: • Mark Twain, • William Jennings Bryan, • Samuel Gompers, and • Andrew Carnegie. • Anti-Imperialists formed the ‘Anti-Imperialist League’ to oppose the new course of American foreign policy – their arguments were drowned out by the ‘Gilded Age’s’ moral tone of ‘social Darwinism’ and its emphasis on survival of the fittest and Anglo-Saxon racial superiority.
‘Columbia’s Easter Bonnet’U.S. Tries on World Power Cartoon from ‘Puck’ 1901 • In 1900, McKinley ran for a second term – his popularity was high because: • the country had returned to prosperity after the depression of 1893-1897, • the U.S. was firmly on the gold standard, and • the nation had been through a victorious war - bringing new markets and overseas possessions
War & EmpireA. The ‘Election of 1900’ – A Referendum • Theodore Roosevelt, elected governor of New York following the war, was maneuvered into accepting the vice-presidential spot on McKinley’s ticket - a place where conservative political bosses in New York State believed Theodore Roosevelt the reformer could not harm their interests. • William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic nominee in 1900, campaigned on: • his opposition to corporate trusts and monopolies, • support for the defunct issue of ‘free silver’, and • most importantly, his opposition to imperialism. • During the campaign, Republicans attacked what they characterized as ‘Bryanism’ – the notion that the election of Bryan would bring a return of bad economic times and other problems.
War & EmpireA. The ‘Election of 1900’ – A Referendum • By tying himself to anti-imperialism and the ‘free silver’ issue, Bryan virtually committed political suicide – the running joke was that the odds of his winning were ‘16 to 1’. • McKinley defeated Bryan by a wider margin than in the 1896 election [292 electoral to Bryan’s 155 electoral] – a reflection of the public’s greater desire for prosperity and protectionism rather than a referendum on imperialism.
Theodore Roosevelt – the Diplomat & His Big StickA. Rough Rider President • On September 6, 1901, Pres. McKinley attended the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, N.Y. – there he was shot twice byLeon Czolgosz (zolgosh), a deranged anarchist, and died eight days later. • Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency – at forty-two the youngest man ever to move into the White House.
Theodore Roosevelt – the Diplomat & His Big StickA. Rough Rider President • Roosevelt, born into a New York patrician family, was known for his impulsiveness, enormous talent and energy – traits he used to strengthen the power of the presidency and the federal government. • In the aftermath of the assassination, Roosevelt sought to reassure the nation by stating his intent to carry out the policies of his predecessor. • However as an ardent expansionist, he believed the executive branch should actively shape American foreign policy and promote the nation’s interests abroad – at times by exceeding the legal limits of his constitutional powers.
“Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.”-- lost African proverb • In the Caribbean, Roosevelt guarded America’s ‘sphere of influence’ by announcing the Roosevelt Corollaryto the Monroe Doctrine – a policy which, in effect, made the U.S. the hemisphere’s policeman! • He believed “civilized” nations should police and control the behavior of “backward” nations – relying on military strength and diplomacy in pursuit of American interests.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big Stick • The ‘Roosevelt Corollary’: • promised the United States would not intervene in Latin America as long as nations conducted their affairs with “decency”, and • served notice to the European powers to keep out. • In 1902, Roosevelt risked war with Germany by intervening in the Venezuelan debt dispute – a problem that was eventually settled through arbitration. • Roosevelt, a strong advocate of naval power, had long supported the idea of building a canal linking the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean – an idea that would greatly enhance the flexibility of U.S. naval power.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big Stick • The Spanish-American War had well illustrated the need for an isthmian canal – in 1898, the U.S.S. Oregon [assigned to the Pacific Fleet] was forced to make the long, time-consuming voyage around S. America to join the Atlantic Fleet off Cuba.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big Stick • A canal was paramount to defending America’s expanding merchant marine shipping and territorial acquisitions [Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Guam]. • In 1901, the U.S. and Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty which cancelled the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 – giving the U.S. unrestricted control over any canal built. • The two proposed canal routes were: • through Nicaragua, or • a Panamanian route, through the purchase of canal rights from the French-owned New Panama Canal Company.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big Stick • Philippe Bunau-Varilla, an engineer and representative of the French company, initially offered to sell its holdings for $109 million – the price quickly dropped to $40 million. • Congress approved the Panamanian route in June 1902 – afterwards a Columbian official signed a treaty giving the U.S. a six-mile-wide right-of-way for $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000. • The Columbian Senate considered the $10 million an inadequate payment and rejected the treaty – a decision which infuriated President Roosevelt as virtual blackmail. • Columbia would have accepted a payment ranging between $25 million and $40 million but time for further negotiations ran out.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big Stick • The U.S. government then aided and protected a ‘Panamanian Revolution’ [November 3, 1903] by: • sending the U.S.S. Nashville to guard the isthmus, and • supporting Philip Bunau-Varilla’s ‘bought’ soldiers in the takeover of Panama. • Roosevelt defended American support for Panamanian ‘revolutionaries’ by loosely interpreting an 1848 treaty with Columbia whereby the U.S. obligated itself to maintaining “perfect neutrality” of the isthmus. • The U.S. State Department quickly recognized the new government of Panama within twenty-four hours - Panama accepted the $10 million dollars first offered to Columbia and granted the U.S. a ten-mile-wide zone.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big StickThe Panama Canal • Work began on the Panama Canal in 1903 and was completed in 1914 at a cost of nearly $400 million.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big Stick • In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt again intervened in Latin America when the U.S. took over tariff collections in the Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Costa Rica –ensuring the repayment of debts owed to German and British banks. • This enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine against outside interference was informally known as “preventive intervention”; formally as the Roosevelt Corollary. • The Roosevelt Corollary was a radical policy departure which gained acceptance because of its linkage to the honored Monroe Doctrine - it also promoted the Bad Neighbor policy used to justify wholesale interventions.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big StickAmerica on the World Stage • Theodore Roosevelt helped established the U.S. as a force in world affairs between 1905-1906 through his mediation of several international disputes. • At the ‘Portsmouth Conference’ of 1905,he mediated an end to the Russo-Japanese War that began when Japan invaded Manchuria and threatened Russia’s ‘sphere of influence’.
Theodore Roosevelt - the Diplomat & His Big StickAmerica on the World Stage (cont.) • In 1906, Theodore Roosevelt attended the ‘Algeciras Conference’ – mediating a peaceful solution to a dispute involving French and German interests in N. Africa - adding to his reputation as an astute negotiator. • That year, Roosevelt earned the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in ending the Russo-Japanese War and for the successful Algeciras, Spain conference.
Progressivism Finds a President: Theodore Roosevelt the Diplomat • In Asia, Roosevelt continued the Open Door policy - but he did not pursue an aggressive Asian policy. • However, the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake provided Roosevelt with another challenge – this time involving the San Francisco School Board’s order to segregate Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students in a special school to free more space for white students (segregation) • The School Board’s discriminatory legislation raised official protests from the Japanese government – jeopardizing good relations between Japan and the United States.
Progressivism Finds a President: Theodore Roosevelt the Diplomat (cont.) • In 1907, President Roosevelt intervened by calling the entire San Francisco School Board to the White House and pressured the city to rescind its segregation order – smoothing over relations with Japan. • In return, Japan’s government accepted the Gentleman’s Agreement, an informal agreement calling for voluntary restrictions on Japanese immigration to the United States! • The Gentleman’s Agreementplacated “nativist” sentimentsin California while also allowing Japan to save face in the matter.
Progressivism Finds a President: Theodore Roosevelt the Diplomat (cont.) • Afterwards, Roosevelt worried that his intervention in the school board issue might be interpreted in Tokyo as having been prompted by fear of the Japanese – as a consequence, he decided on a dramatic show of force. • In late 1907, Roosevelt ordered the ‘Great White Fleet’ [sixteen modern U.S. Navy battleships] to sail around the world on a ‘goodwill tour’ that also demonstrated America’s naval power – it received tumultuous welcomes in Latin America, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, and particularly Japan. • Roosevelt’s show of American naval power illustrated his dictum “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” -- lost African proverb
Progressivism Finds a President: Theodore Roosevelt the Diplomat (cont.) • The ‘Great White Fleet’s’ world voyage and the warm reception it received in Japan improved relations with and between the two countries under a new treaty. • The 1908 ‘Root-Takahira’ agreement pledged the U.S. and Japan to honor the Open Door’ in China and support the status quo in the Pacific by respecting the others territorial claims.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeProgressive Roots: Pragmatism & Social Engineering • The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed the emergence of America as a world power complete with modern metropolises, giant corporations, sweatshop labor, immense factories, nation-altering immigration, as well as growing crime, vice, poverty, and disease! • These changes raised a number of complex questions, including: • What role should the U.S. play in the world? • How could the enormous power of industry be controlled? • What should the country do about poverty, disease, and racial injustice?
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeProgressive Roots: Pragmatism & Social Engineering (cont.) • Central to all of these complex questions was a larger question – Should government remain narrowly limited in its powers, or should it seek to shape society and secure American interests abroad? • The ‘Progressive Movement’ marked the first attempt to answer these questions as reform-minded men and women from both major parties and from all walks of life joined in a progressive crusade for greater government activism. • Clearly, by the 1890s, the classical liberal approach which opposed strong central government and a ‘laissez-faire’ attitude toward business no longer worked.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeProgressive Roots: Pragmatism & Social Engineering (cont.) • The ‘laissez-faire’ state of the 1890s exacerbated social injustices and inequalities of race, class, and gender – as evidenced by the era’s labor strikes, suffrage rallies, farmers’ revolt, anti-lynching campaigns, and court decisions elevating the right of private property over personal rights! • ‘Progressive’ reformers championed various causes to better society – some motivated by: • a new Christian ‘social gospel’, • the fear of ‘new’ immigrants and social revolution, and • concern over the growing power of wealthy individuals and corporations.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeProgressive Roots: Pragmatism & Social Engineering (cont.) • Progressivisms’ interventionist and theoretical basis was rooted in: • the Greenback Labor party of the 1870s, • the Populists of the 1890s, and, most importantly • a dynamic new ‘reform Darwinism’ that emphasized ‘pragmatism’, scientific management, experimentation, and efficiency. • In the ‘Progressive Era’, a new group of sociologists argued that evolution could be advanced if men and women used their intellect to alter the environment – insisting that the ‘state’ should play a more active role in solving social problems; a condemning view of ‘laissez-faire’ politics! • Progressives were influenced primarily by the work of two philosophers – William James and John Dewey.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeProgressive Roots: Pragmatism, & Social Engineering (cont.) • BothJames and Deweyinsisted that there were no eternal truths and that the real worth of any idea lay in its consequences – they called this philosophy pragmatism. • American progressives embraced this philosophy of ‘pragmatism’ which provided the motivation for attacking society’s ills through reform – in the process, ‘efficiency’ and ‘expertise’ became key catchwords in the progressive lexicon. • The reliance of progressives on expertise, social engineering, and scientific management had its negative aspects – including an alienation of the working class and a kind of elitism among progressives!
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeA. Progressive Roots: Pragmatism & Social Engineering (cont.) • In the 1880s, Frederick Winslow Taylor, a leading proponent of scientific management, pioneered the concept of ‘systematized shop management’ – breaking down work tasks into basic steps on the theory that productivity would increase. • “Taylorism” alienated and “monotonized” the lives of workers - pushing them to produce more in less time as it drove down wages.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeThe Muckrakers • Among the era’s notable investigative journalistic works were: • Henry Demarest Lloyd’s ‘Wealth Against Commonwealth’, an exposé of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company, • Thorstein Veblen’s ‘The Theory of the Leisure Class’, which attacked ‘conspicuous consumption’ and ‘predatory wealth’, • Ida Tarbell’s investigative pieces on Standard Oil which appeared in McClure’s Magazine, • Jacob Riis’s ‘How the Other Half Lives’, an exposé on life in New York slums, • Lincoln Steffens’ ‘The Shame of the Cities’, a series of articles on political corruption, • David G. Phillips’ ‘The Treason of the Senate’, a series of articles on U.S. Senate corruption, and • John Spargo’s ‘The Bitter Cry of the Children’, an exposé on the abuses of child labor.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeThe ‘Muckrakers’ (cont.) • ‘Progressive Era’ journalists did not seek to overthrow capitalism – only to correct social wrongs by raising the public’s social consciousness of the ills of American democracy. • Labeled ‘muckrakers’ by Roosevelt in 1906, these journalists offered few solutions to the problems they criticized.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeCities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ • Progressives attacked the problems of urban industrialism on many fronts – the “settlement house” movement, for example, offered English language instruction, counseling, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities. • Imported from England in 1886, the “settlement house” movement began with the opening of the ‘University Settlement House’ in New York City. • Settlement houses’ grew from six in 1891 to more than four hundred by 1911 • Among the more famous “settlement houses” were: • Lillian Wald’s Henry Street in New York City, and • Jane Addams’s Hull House in Chicago
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeCities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ • Women formed the back-bone of the ‘settlement house’ movement – particularly college-educated women like Jane Addams and Lillian Wald.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeC. Cities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ (cont.) • Churches also confronted social problems caused by urban industrialization – by professing a new Christian ‘social gospel’ and campaigning against vice and crime in the name of ‘social purity’. • Churches, whose efforts often began at the local level, saw their mission as not simply to reform individuals but also to reform society – their efforts became the focus of debates in state legislatures, in Congress, and in the White House. • Prominent ministers, including Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch, played active roles in the ‘social purity’ movement.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeCities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ (cont.) • Gladden, a Congregational minister, was the first to offer the ‘social gospel’as a counter to Andrew Carnegie’s ‘gospel of wealth’ [idea that wealth signaled divine favor] • Rauschenbusch, a Baptist minister, authored ‘Christianity and the Social Crisis’ which called for churches to promote social justice and ‘social purity’ through active support of reform efforts to eradicate the conditions in cities which bred crime, corruption and decay !
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeCities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ (cont.) • Ministers in the ‘social purity’ movement allied with doctors and women reformers to end prostitution by: • closing down red-light districts in U.S. cities, • winning passage in 1910 of the ‘Mann Act’ making it illegal to transport women across state lines for ‘immoral purposes’, and • control venereal disease by securing passage of state legislation requiring a syphilis blood test before marriage. • Joining the reformers were the ‘Woman’s Christian Temp-erance Union’, the ‘Anti-Saloon League’ and other anti-liquor organizations pushing their attacks against alcohol.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeCities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ (cont.) • The movement for prohibition of liquor reflected an element of ‘Nativism’ that stigmatized Germans, Irish, Italians, and other ethnic groups for whom drinking formed part of their social customs.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeCities, Women, & ‘Social Purity’ (cont.) • Progressive’s efforts to civilize the ‘city’ reflected: • a belief that environment, not heredity alone, determined behavior, and • their optimism that government intervention could improve conditions without radically altering America’s institutions or economy.
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeD. Working-class Women • In 1903, attempts to forge a ‘cross-class’ alliance between female middle-class reformers and working-class women became institutionalized with the formation of the ‘Women’s Trade Union League’ – its goal was to organize women into unions under the control of the ‘AF of L’ • The ‘WTUL’s achieved notable success in 1909 in the ‘upris-ing of twenty thousand’ – a strike of women employees of the ‘Triangle Shirtwaist Company ‘ in New York City protesting low wages, dangerous working conditions, and management’s refusal to recognize their union • In February 1910, the strike ended with winning important demands in many shops – they did not win recognition of their union
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeD. Working-class Women (cont.) • Samuel Gompers, head of the AF of L, endorsed the principle of equal pay for equal work – believing that it would help male workers more than women because many employers hired women since they could be paid less • The ‘WTUL’ made important contributions to the strike including (1) volunteers for picket lines, (2) posting $29,000 in bail for those arrested by police, (3) protesting police brutality, (4) arranging mass meetings, and (5) raising funds and publicity • With the leadership and support of the ‘WTUL’, women from every class of society supported the ‘Triangle Shirtwaist Company’ strike – including J.P. Morgan’s daughter Anne
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeD. Working-class Women (cont.) • In March 1911, a fire at the ‘Triangle Shirtwaist Company’ killed 146 workers and injured many more – its owners, charged with negligence, escaped conviction despite the fact they had locked the exit doors • The ‘Triangle Shirtwaist Company’ fire tested the bonds of the cross-class alliance and provided evidence that basic working conditions for women workers had not changed • After the ‘Triangle’ fire, the ‘WTUL’ moved beyond its initial efforts at organization and strikes – increasingly, it engaged in lobbying for protective legislation that would regulate working conditions for women workers and limit work hours
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeD. Working-class Women (cont.) • In 1908, the principle of protective legislation won a major victory when the U.S. Supreme Court in ‘Muller v. Oregon’ upheld an Oregon law that limited the hours women could work to ten a day • In ‘Muller v. Oregon’, attorney Louis Brandeis presented a legal brief [on behalf of Florence Kelley of the ‘National Consumers’ League’ and Josephine Goldmark of the ‘WTUL’] delivering sociological evidence of the ill effects of long work hours on women • The ‘Court’s’ ruling in set a precedent that separated the well-being of women workers from that of men – arguing that women’s reproductive role justified special treatment
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeE. Political Progressivism • Progressives, frustrated by the reluctance of private industry to respond to the need for reforms, turned increasingly to government at the federal, state, and local levels to solve society’s problems • By 1901, progressive reform efforts could be seen at every level of government - the politicians who became premier progressives were generally the followers, not the leaders, of a movement already well advanced at the grassroots level • Among the premier politicians of the progressive era were Mayor Tom Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio, Governor Hiram Johnson of California, Governor Robert La Follette of Wisconsin, President Theodore Roosevelt, President William Howard Taft, and President Woodrow Wilson
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeE. Political Progressivism (cont.) • Mayor Johnson fought for ‘home rule’, fair taxation and greater democracy through the use of the initiative, referen-dum, and recall – political devices that allowed voters a direct say in legislation and judicial matters • Johnson fought a seven-year battle with streetcar moguls to lower the fare from 5¢ to 3¢ – earning him the support of the working class and the enmity of business interests • Johnson’s efforts ultimately succeeded when the city bought out streetcar lines to create a municipally owned public transportation system
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeE. Political Progressivism (cont.) • Wisconsin’s Governor Robert La Follette launch-ed the grassroots move-ment for reform – first as Governor [1901-1905] and as a U.S. Senator [1906-1925] • He recruited professors and scientists from the Univer-sity of Wisconsin, to serve in his administration
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeE. Political Progressivism (cont.) • La Follette united his supporters around issues that trans-cended party loyalties, including industrial and railroad regulation, education reform, worker’s compensation and conservation • Under his leadership, Wisconsin became the first state to use of the ‘direct primary’ and inaugurate the first state income tax – earning Wisconsin the title ‘laboratory of democracy’ • In California, progressivism’s champion was Hiram Johnson, who served as governor from 1911-1917 and U.S. Senator from 1917 to 1945 • As governor, Johnson promised to “return government to the people” – to give them honest public service untarnished by corruption and corporate influence
Progressivism: Theory & PracticeE. Political Progressivism (cont.) • Johnson took on the powerful ‘Southern Pacific Railroad’ which had dominated California politics since the 1870s • He strengthened the state’s RR commission, signed an employer’s liability law, supported conservation, and intro-duced the direct primary, initiative, referendum, and recall • By 1912, Gov. Johnson claimed regulation of the ‘Southern Pacific RR’ had saved shippers more than $2 million • Among those who benefited from Johnson’s progressive reforms were large farmers, independent oil producers, and other entrepreneurs once at the mercy of the railroads