COMIC STRIPS QUIDELINES
Comic strips “… eye candy, or food for thought?”
Storytelling Problem solving Decision making Creativity Self expression COMIC STRIPS Sequencing Artistic skills Computer skills
DEFINITION • A comic strip is a common form of comics (a general term to also include editorial or gag cartoons and comic books or graphic novels). • The term graphic novel is now established for the longer and more novel-like coherent story, and • the term sequential art is also suggested by Will Eisner .
FORM & USE • It is a medium which combines text and visual information • It has the form of a collated sequence of drawings or pictures arranged in interrelated panels to display with text in balloons and captions. • It is used to express ideas, brief humor or form a narrative: It can be humorous or satirical but also may take the form of adventure story and even soap-opera continuity strip. • When used to tell a story it has the 3 main parts of a story: (Setting, Characters, Plot)
WHERE • Often published in daily newspapers, with horizontal strips, printed in black-and-white. Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special colour section. • Web comics/online comics/internet comics, are available on the Internet and reach large audiences.Web comics can make use of an infinite canvas thus not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
common stip creators • Strips are written and drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist • Today due to technology more and more people express themselves via comic strips • mixed media and digital technology have become common.
specialists • Typically one creator produces the whole strip. • Sometimes • a writer carries out the script and • an artist (with or without additional assistant artists) the drawing of the art . In some cases, one artist draws key figures/the characters while another does only backgrounds (common in Japan). • In American superhero comic books, • a penciller lays out the artwork in pencil; • an inker finishes the artwork in ink; • a colourist applies colours • a letterer adds the captions and speech balloons. Even if many strips are the work of two people, one signature is displayed
Cartoon Strip as a Medium A comic strip is considered to be a page-based story-telling through a sequence of frames similar to a filmed sequence of shots so All strips use the basic film conventions: • angle (high, straight, low, canted) • zoom in/out • shot-reverse shot • eyeline match • Direction: left-right, top-bottom (in West) • Colour: black and white or coloured • use of shot distance (ELS, LS, MS, MCU, CU, ECU)
Structures (1) Micro-structures: inter-frame relationships: • shot-reverse shot • zoom in/out • repetition, contrast • Q/A • moment-moment • action-action • subject-subject • scene-scene • aspect-aspect • non-sequitur • flash-forwards • flashback
Structures (2) Macro-structures : Consistent style:narrative structure e.g. • beginning (setting/ characters/ actions) • middle (problem, effect) • possible solution/ cliffhanger OR similar to a mainstream film and television e.g. 4-act structure • setup, • complication, • development, • resolution From Marchant, S. (2006) The Computer Cartoon Kit (with CD-ROM of images). Lewes: Ilex. Digital images & instructions provided!
THE MAIN FEATURES TITLE A CAPTION :A BOX (USUALLY RECTANGULAR) USED FOR NARRATION PANEL/FRAME GUTTER TEXT IS USUALLY IN CAPITALS SPEECH BUBBLE MOTION LINES
FEATURES (1) The story (in form of pictures or drawings) is • arranged in “panels” or boxes. • separated out by the “gutter” the empty space surrounding them.
FEATURES (2) • The narratives are shown in caption boxes, usually coloured, to differentiate from speech.
FEATURES (3) • Speech bubbles, usually round or square, use a tail pointing to the character’s mouth to indicate speaking out loud. • Text, usually all in capitals I HAVE THE SOLUTION..
FEATURES (4) • A scream bubble, with a jagged outline or a thicker line and usually larger • Text, bolder than normal letters (the character is screaming). WHAAAAA
FEATURES (5) • Broadcast bubbles, with a jagged tail like a lightning flash shape • Text, letters sometimes italicised to indicate communication through an electronic device (telephone, radio, TV) …cartoon time…
FEATURES (6) • A whisper bubble, with a dashed/dotted outline • Text, smaller letters and a paler (grey) writing (the speaker is talking in a softer or quieter tone). …AND THEN SHE…
FEATURES (7) • Thought bubbles, cloud-shaped word bubbles (the character is not talking loud) HMMMM!
FEATURES (8) Action words sounds can be heard and help the image make an impact. Examples: POW!the sound of a blow BAM!the sound of a hard blow or to show something happening abruptly SKREEECH!a car sliding around a corner KABOOOM! the sound of an explosion • Usually in coloured jagged splats • Text all in capitals • Exclamations are quite often
Analysing a Comic Strip • Identify modal elements & their reasons for use • Identify target reader and genre • Identify stages in the narrative • Evaluate artistry • Evaluate representations e.g. stereotypes, non-stereotypes
Creating a comic strip 1. Planning • Identify purpose, target audience and genre • Create draft storyboard • Decide on characters ,settings, pros 2. Producing • Collect/shoot/scan/upload images/photos • Create writing content • Use appropriate software to edit comic strip 3. Sharing • Save in format for distribution (e.g. pdf) • Print /share
TERMINOLOGY TITLE: the name of the creation PANEL/FRAME: individual images containing a segment of action often surrounded by a border CAPTION: a box (usually rectangular) for narration. Captions can give voice to a narrator, convey characters' dialogue or thoughts,or indicate place or time SOUND EFFECT/SFXor ONOMATOPOEIA: The formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g. cuckoo, sizzle) SYMBOLS/EMANATA: graphic signs used to convey information that goes beyond what could be perceived visually : e.g. sweat beads (for fear or anxiety), light bulb (for idea) GUTTER: the gap among panels to indicate narrative and temporality; the major place for meaning making. SPEECH /BUBBLE balloons: indicate dialogue (or thought MOTION LINES /movement lines /action lines /speed lines/zip ribbons: the abstract lines that appear behind a moving object or person, parallel to its direction of movement, to make it appear as if it is moving quickly. MANGA: Japanese graphic novels, telling translated tales of romance, adventure, and politics. ENCAPSULATION: the process through which prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels. CARICATURE: an exaggeration of personal characteristics, usually in picture form PERSONIFICATION: attributing human characteristics to animals or objects
RECOURCES https://www.tes.co.uk/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comic_strip http://www.britannica.com/art/comic-strip http://comicsforum.org/2013/02/25/chercher-dans-le-noir-the-gap-as-motif-in-caboto-by-lorenzo-mattotti-and-jorge-zentner-by-barbara-uhlig/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodolphe_T%C3%B6pffer#/media/File:Toepffer_Cryptogame_13.png https://spot.pcc.edu/~mdembrow/glossary.htm http://blog.visualmotive.com/2009/understanding-comics-with-scott-mccloud/ http://comicsforum.org/2013/07/26/list-of-terms-for-comics-studies-by-andrei-molotiu/ Glykeria Gkouvatsou