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Renewable Energy Integration

Renewable Energy Integration

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Renewable Energy Integration

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  1. Renewable Energy Integration Professor Stephen Lawrence Leeds School of Business University of Colorado at Boulder http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/images/left.gif http://www.re-energy.ca/

  2. Agenda • Current and future sources of energy • What’s best? • Distributed Generation

  3. World primary energy consumption BP website (BP.com)

  4. World Energy Consumption to 2025 http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html

  5. Energy Forecasts by Sector http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html

  6. Primary energy consumed per capita BP website (BP.com)

  7. World Primary Energy per Capita http://www.newint.org/issue284/facts.html

  8. Oil & Gas Production Forecasts Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

  9. Global Fossil Carbon Emissions Wikipedia.org, Climate Change, Global Warming articles

  10. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Wikipedia.org, Climate Change, Global Warming articles

  11. Fossil Fuels BP website (BP.com)

  12. Petroleum http://www.lakesoil.com.au/photo6.jpg

  13. Natural Gas www.citypublicservice.com http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/222.asp

  14. Coal http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/default.asp?id=fow&num=30

  15. Tar Sands http://www.protectowire.com/applications/profiles/electric_shovels.htm http://www.aapg.org/explorer/2005/05may/dinning.cfm

  16. Oil Shale http://nandotimes.nandomedia.com/ips_rich_content/896-shale_rock.jpg http://geosurvey.state.co.us/Default.aspx?tabid=104

  17. Problems with Fossil Fuels/Coal • Large source of atmospheric pollution • Create carbon dioxide (CO2) when burned • Implicated in global warming • Nitrous oxides (NOx) – smog • Sulfur dioxide (SO2) – acid rain • Measurable amounts of radioactive material • Naturally present in coal • More than a nuclear power plant

  18. Typical Coal-Fired Power Plant

  19. CO2 Mitigation Options http://www.netl.doe.gov

  20. Carbon Sequestration Options http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2006/energy.html

  21. Ocean Sequestration http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/sea-carb-bish.html

  22. Polk Power Station – Tampa http://www.fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/coal_cct5.html

  23. FutureGen

  24. Nuclear Energy

  25. Nuclear Energy Consumption

  26. US Production Cost Comparison http://www.nei.org

  27. Spent Fuel Cooling Pool http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  28. Yucca Mountain Cross Section http://www.nrc.gov/waste/hlw-disposal/design.html

  29. Transportation Concerns http://www.nei.org/http://www.nei.org/index.asp?catnum=2&catid=84

  30. Anti-Nuclear Ad http://perth.indymedia.org/storyuploads/13114/en_4b.jpg

  31. Hydropower http://las-vegas.travelnice.com/dbi/hooverdam-225x300.jpg

  32. Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams

  33. Wind Energy

  34. US Wind Energy Capacity

  35. 2003 1.8 MW 350’ 2000 850 kW 265’ Recent Capacity Enhancements 2006 5 MW 600’

  36. Costs Nosedive  Wind’s Success 38 cents/kWh 3.5-5.0 cents/kWh Levelized cost at good wind sites in nominal dollars, not including tax credit

  37. Solar Energy Solar Centre at Baglan Energy Park in South Wales http://www.c-a-b.org.uk/projects/tech1.htm

  38. Large Scale Solar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  39. Small Scale Solar

  40. Solar Cell Production Volume Sharp Corporation http://sharp-world.com/solar/generation/images/graph_2004.gif

  41. PV Cell Efficiencies http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

  42. Solar Thermal Energy http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/re-kiosk/solar/solar-thermal/case-studies/central-receiver.shtml

  43. Oceanic Energy

  44. Direct drive to generator No gearboxes Gravity base Versus a bored foundation Fixed pitch turbine blades Improved reliability But trades off efficiency Tidal Turbines (Swanturbines) http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/tidal.htm

  45. Cross Section of a Tidal Barrage http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/tidal.html

  46. Tapered Channel (Tapchan) http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/ocean.html

  47. Completed 2000 Scottish Isles Two counter-rotating Wells turbines Two generators 500 kW max power LIMPET Oscillating Water Column Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

  48. “Mighty Whale” Design – Japan http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec/MTD/Whale/

  49. Ocean Wave Conversion System http://www.sara.com/energy/WEC.html