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Study Guide for Latin 2 National Latin Exam

Study Guide for Latin 2 National Latin Exam

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Study Guide for Latin 2 National Latin Exam

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  1. Study Guide for Latin 2 National Latin Exam

  2. Nouns: • 1st 2ndM2ndN 3rd 3rdN 4th 4th N 5th • a us/r um --- --- us ū ēs • ae ī ī is is ūsūseī • ae ō ō ī ī uī ū eī • am um um em --- um ū em • ā ō ō e e ū ū ē ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • ae ī a ēs a ūsuaēs • ārumōrumōrum um um uumuumērum • Īsīsīsibusibusibusibusēbus • Āsōs a ēs a ūsuaēs • Īsīsīsibusibusibusibusēbus

  3. 1 Nominative: -subject and predicate nominative • 2 Genitive: -possession (of, ‘s, s’); • 3 Dative:-indirect object (to/for) verbs of giving, saying, showing, telling, entrusting • 4 Accusative: -direct object -duration of time: e.g. sex diēs = for six days -extent of space: e.g. 10 feet deep -accusative-infinitive construction (Indirect statement) -object of the following prepositions: ad –to, toward, near ante –before, in front of circum -aroundin –into, onto, against per -through post –after, behindcontra -against inter-between, among prope -neartrāns –across ob – on account of propter – because of • 5 Ablative: -ablative of means -no Latin preposition= by means of, with, by • -ablative of time - no Latin preposition; e.g. in the summer, at dawn • -ablative of agent – w/passive verbs- use ā/ab = by • -ablative absolute – with the noun verbing/having been verbed • -object of the following prepositions (SID SPACE) • Sub -underSine –without In –in, on Prō- on behalf of, for • Dē- about, down from Ab/ā – away from, from Cum- with Ex/ē –out of, out from • 6 Vocative: -direct address –used in questions and commands; often punctuated with “ ”, ! or ?

  4. Pronouns:

  5. -personal: • ego, tū, nōs, vōs • I/me You We/us You/you • Nom ego tūnōsvōs • Gen meītuīnōstrumvestrum • Datmihitibinōbīsvōbīs • Acc mētēnōsvōs • Ablmētēnōbīsvōbīs

  6. -relative: • quī, quae, quod – who, which, whose, whom • Nom S quī quae quod • Gen S cuiuscuiuscuius • Dat S cui cui cui • Acc S quem quam quod • Abl S quōquāquō --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • Nom pl quī quae quae • Gen pl quōrumquārumquōrum • Dat pl quibusquibusquibus • Acc pl quōsquās qua • Abl pl quibusquibusquibus

  7. -interrogative: • quis, quid (uses ? mark) – Who? what? • Nom S quisquisquid • Gen S cuiuscuiuscuius • Dat S cui cuicui • Acc Squemquem quid • Abl S quōquōquō • Nom pl quī quae quae • Gen pl quōrumquārumquōrum • Datplquibusquibusquibus • Acc pl quōsquās quae • Ablplquibusquibusquibus

  8. -reflexive: • meītuī nostrum vestrumsuī -self • meītuī nostrum vestrumsuīof … self • Mihitibinōbīsvōbīssibito/for …self • mētēnōsvōssē…self • mētēnōbīsvōbīssēby/with/from…self

  9. -demonstratives: • hic, ille, is • This/these That/those He She It • hic haec hoc illeillaillud is ea id • huiushuiushuiusilliusilliusilliuseiuseiuseius • Huichuichuicillīillīillīeīeīeī • hunchanc hoc illumillamilludeumeam id • hōchāchōcillōillāillōeōeāeō • Hīhaehaecillīillaeillaeīeae ea • hōrumhārumhōrumillōrumillārumillōrumeōrumeārumeōrum • hīshīshīsillīsIllīsillīseīseīseīs • hōshāshaecillōsillāsillaeōseās ea • hīshīshīsillīsillīsillīseīseīseīs

  10. Adjectives: • Declensions 1st (f) ,2nd (M), 2nd(N) • 3rd (masc, fem and neuter)


  12. -noun and adjective agreement = • number, gender and case (don’t have to match declensions) • -interrogative: quot =how many • -degrees: positive, comparative, superlative in all 3 declensions • positive: (tall) --altus, a, um (1st/2nd Decl) or (brave,strong)-- fortis, e (3rd Decl) • comparative: (taller, more tall, rather tall) ----altior, altioris (all comparatives are 3rd declension) (M/F) • ----altius, altioris (neuter) • superlative: (tallest, very tall, most tall) altissimus, a um; fortissimus, a, um (all in 1st/2nd declension) • variant superlatives: words which end in ‘r’ – errimus instead of issimus (celerrimus) • words which end in ‘l’ – illimus instead of issimus (facillimus)

  13. Agricola servum _____ laudabat • Fortis • Fortem • Forte • Fortibus

  14. Numbers: • Cardinal numbers 1-10; unus, duo, tres/tria, quattuor, quinque, sex, septem, octo, novem, decem • 100 –centum and 1000- mille • Roman numerals 1-100: I (1), V(5), X(10), L(50), C(100), D(500), M(1000) • Ordinals:1st-10th: primus, secundus, tertius, quartus, quintus, sextus, septimus, octavus, nonus, decimus

  15. Adverbs: • degrees: positive, comparative, superlative • -positive forms • -formation 1st/2nd: replace with ē = pulchrē = beautifully • -formation 3rd Decl: add –‘ter’ or ‘iter’ to the stem. • - comparative: add –ius to the base (any declension) • e.g. fortius –more bravely • -superlative: add –issimē, errimē or illimē to the base • e.g. fortissimē = most/very bravely • -interrogatives:cur, (why?) ubi (where?) quomodo (how?) quando (when?) • -irregulars: bene (well), optimē (best) male (badly) pessimē (worst)

  16. Conjunctions:, (both… and) neque...neque (neither…nor) aut…aut (either…or) postquam; (afterwards) quamquam; (although) nec…nec (neither…nor) aut, (or) et (and) quod (because) sed (but) ubi (when) neque, (and not/neither/nor)

  17. Enclitic: • -ne (indicates a yes/no question –do not use with question word like how, when, who, etc) • -que (attach on the second of the 2 words/phrases; puerīpuellaeque (boys and girls) • - cum (attach to pronouns-e.g. tēcum = with you)

  18. Verbs: Translations: • Present: I verb; I do verb; I am verbing • Imperfect: I was verbing; I used to verb • Future: I shall/will verb • Perfect:I have verbed; I verbed; I did verb • Pluperfect: I had verbed • Future Perfect: I shall/will have verbed

  19. Passive Verbs: Translations: • Present, Imperfect, Future, Perfect, Pluperfect , Future Perfect • Present: I am verbed; I am being verbed • Imperfect: I was being verbed; I used to be verbed; I was verbed • Future: I shall/will be verbed • Perfect: I have been verbed; I was verbed • Pluperfect: I had been verbed • Future Perfect: I shall/will have been verbed

  20. Subjunctive Active • Present Imp Fut1/2;3/4 PrfctPluFutPerf • I -ō -bam -bō-am -ī -eram -erō • You -s -bās -bis-ēs -istī -erās -eris • s/he -t -bat -bit-et -it -erat -erit • We -mus -bāmus -bimus-ēmus -imus -erāmus -erimus • You -tis -bātis -bitis –ētis -istis -erātis -eritis • They-nt -bant -bunt-ent -ērunt -erant -erint

  21. Passive • present imperfect fut1/2;3/4 perfect pluperfect, • -(o)r -bar -bor -ar 4pp+sum 4pp + eram • -ris -bāris -beris -ēris 4pp + es 4pp + erās • -tur -bātur -bitur -ētur 4pp+est 4pp+erat • -mur -bāmur -bimur-ēmur 4pp+sumus 4pp+ erāmus • -minī -bāminī -biminī /-ēminī 4pp+estis 4pp+erātis • -ntur -bantur -buntur/-ēntur 4pp + sunt 4pp + erant

  22. Imperatives • -present active imperative singular and plural : = verb! 1st 2nd 3rd 4th ā āte ē ēte ĕ ĭte ī īte • -negative imperative with noli, nolite + infinitive = don’t verb!

  23. Infintives • -present active infinitive= to verb -āre -ēre -ere -īre • -present passive infinitive=to be verbed -ārī-ērī-ī -īrī • -perfect active infinitive= to have verbeduse the 3rd principal part + ssee.g. amāvisse • -perfect passive infinitive=to have been verbed use the 4pp + esse e.g. amātusesse • -future active =to be about to verbuse the 4pp+ ūrus + esse e.g. amatūrusesse • -infinitives in indirect statement (with accusative subject)

  24. -participles: • Present-ns, ntis = verbing e.g. amans, monens, veniens (3rd Decl) • Perfect4pp + us, a, um = having been verbedamatus, monitus, etc (1st/2nd Decl) • Future4pp + ūrus, a, um = about to verb/going to verb (1st/2nd Decl)

  25. Irregular verb: sum, esse, fuī, futūrus (to be): • PresentImperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect • sum eramerōfuīfueramfuerōI am, was, will be, have been, had been,will have been • eserāserisfuistīfuerāsfueris You are, were, will be, have been, had been,will have been • esterateritfuitfueratfuerit He, is, was, will be, has been, , had been, will have been • sumuserāmuserimusfuimusfuerāmusfuerimus We are,were, will be,havebeen,hadbeen,will have been • estiserātiseritisfuistisfuerātisfueritis You are, were, will be, have been, had been,will have been • sunteranteruntfuēruntfuerantfuerint They are,were,will be, have been , had been,will have been

  26. Irregular Verb: possum, posse, potuī—(to be able) • I am able/canI was able/couldI will be able I have been able I had been ableI shall have been able • possum poterampoterōpotuīpotuerampotuerō • potespoterāspoterispotuistīpotuerāspotueris • potestpoteratpoteritpotuitpotueratpotuerit • posumuspoterāmuspoterimuspotuimuspotuerāmuspotuerimus • potestispoterātispoteritispotuistispotuerātispotueritis • possuntpoterantpoteruntpotuēruntpotuerantpotuerint

  27. Irregular Verb: Volo, Velle, Volui, Volutus • I want I wanted I will want I have wantedI had wanted I shall have wanted • volōvolēbamvolamvoluīvolueramvoluerō • vīsvolēbāsvolēsvoluistīvoluerāsvolueris • vultvolēbatvoletvoluitvolueratvoluerit • volumusvolēbāmusvolēmusvoluimusvoluerāmusvoluerimus • vultisvolēbātisvolētisvoluistisvoluerātisvolueritis • voluntvolēbantvolentvoluēruntvoluerantvoluerint

  28. Irregular Verb: Eo, ire, ivi, itus • I go I was goingI shall go I have goneI had gone I shall have gone • Eōībamībōiīieram • is ībāsībisīstīierās • it ībatībitiitierat • imusībāmusībimusiimusierāmus • itisībātisībitisīstisierātis • Euntibantībuntiēruntierant • Present Imperatives:(Sing) ī (go!) (Plural) īte (go!)

  29. FeroFerreTuliLatus • I carryIcarriedI shall carrt I have carried I had carried I shall have carried • ferōferēbamferamtulītuleramtulerō • fersferēbāsferēstulistītulerāstuleris • fertferēbatferettulittulerattulerit • ferimusferēbāmusferēmustulimustulerāmustulerimus • fertisferēbātisferētistulististulerātistuleritis • feruntferēbantferenttulērunttuleranttulerint

  30. PASSIVE: To be carried • ferorferēbarferarlātus sum lātuseramlātuserō • ferris (re) ferēbāris (re) ferēris (re)lātuseslātuserāslātuseris • ferturferēbāturferēturlātusestlātuseratlātuserit • ferimurferēbāmurferēmurlātussumuslātuserāmuslātuserimus • feriminīferēbāminīferēminīlātusestislātuserātislātuseritis • ferunturferēbanturferenturlātussuntlātuserantlātuserunt • Present Imperatives:(sing) fer (bear!) (Plural) ferte (bear!) • impersonal verbs: licet = it is permitted; placet – it is pleasing (usually plus a dative)

  31. II. CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE • -Geography: Roman world, e.g., Roma, Italia, Graecia, Britannia, Hispania, Germania, Aegyptus • -Bodies of water: Mare Nostrum, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Black Sea • -Rivers: Tiber River; Rhine River, Po River, Nile River, Rubicon River • -Important Italian locations, e.g., Ostia, Pompeii, Mt. Vesuvius, Brundisium, Apennine Mts • -Provinces, e.g., Africa, Gallia, Asia Minor, • -Major cities: Carthage, Troy, Athens • -Islands: Sicilia, Creta

  32. History:-Basic historical divisions: • Monarchy- 753BC-509 BC – kings are highest ruling officials • --Kings of Rome: 1. Romulus, 2. NumaPompilius, 3. TullusHostilius, 4. AncusMartius, • 5. TarquiniusPriscus, 6. ServiusTullius, 7. TarquiniusSuperbus • Republic – 509 BC-27BC – consuls are highest officials • --Early Roman heroes:Horatius, Cincinnatus, MuciusScaevola • --Prominent historical characters: Hannibal; Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Spartacus • -- Major events of Roman history: Punic Wars, Caesar's conquest of Gaul • Empire – 27 BC -476 – emperors are highest ruling officials • --Prominent historical characters: Augustus, Marc Antony, Cleopatra

  33. -Mythology: • Olympians (Greek/Roman names) symbols, duties; founding of Rome, Romulus and Remus • Olympians and associated myths, e.g., Daphne and Apollo, Arachne and Minerva; • Major heroes, e.g., Hercules, Aeneas, Jason and Medea, Odysseus, Perseus, Theseus, Daedalus • Monsters Medusa, Cyclops, Minotaur, Chimera • Trojan war, e.g., Achilles, Hector, Ulysses, Helen • The Underworld, e.g., Cerberus, Charon, Prosperina, Styx, Pluto

  34. -Roman life: • -city of Rome, e.g., Forum, Circus Maximus, Colosseum; Palatine Hill, Via Appia, Curia • -basic housing, e.g., villa, atrium; triclinium, insulae • -clothing, e.g., toga, tunica, stola; • -Roman household, e.g., pater, mater, servus, filius, filia • -meals, e.g., ientaculum, prandium, cena, culina • -architectural structures and their functions: e.g., aqueduct, thermae (baths), circus, (chariot racing) • amphitheater (gladiatorial battles), curia (senate house), theatrum (theater, stage performances) • basilica, (law courts)


  36. -Basic spoken phrases: • Salve, salvetehelloQuidagis? How are you? / What are you doing? • Quid estnomentibi?What is your name? Vale, valete goodbye • Itavero, Yes! Minime, no! • Quid est? What is it?Quisest? Who is it? • Gratiastibi ago, Thank you Sol lucet, The sun is shining • Quota horaest? What time is it? Adsum,I am present • Quid novi? What’s new?Quaenamesttempestas? What is the weather? • Surge, surgite Rise, get up Ignoscemihi Excuse me. • BenerespondistiYou responded well

  37. -Derivatives: • English words based on Latin roots, prefixes and suffixes e.g., agriculture, aquarium, portable, lunar, octet ; sedentary, sorority, puerile, quadruped, introspection, omniscient, incredulous, benevolent

  38. -Expressions • , tempus fugit, (time flies) carpe diem Venividivici, Summa cum laude, per annum, caveat emptor, status quo,

  39. -Mottoes • E pluribus unum, (one out of many) ad astra per aspera, arslonga, vita brevis • -Abbreviations N.B., (nota bene= note well), a.m. i.e., A.D., et al, vs.,