Lean Manufacturing Superfactory® Lean Enterprise Series
Contents • Introduction • Background and History • Components and Implementation • 5S & Visual Factory • Cellular Manufacturing • Jidoka • Kaizen • Poka Yoke & Mistake Proofing • Quick Changeover & SMED • Production Preparation Process (3P) • Pull Manufacturing & Just In Time • Standard Work • Theory of Constraints • Total Productive Maintenance • Training Within Industry (TWI) • Value Streams • Knowledge Check © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.
Lean vs. Traditional Processes • Half the hours of engineering effort • Half the product development time • Half the investment in machinery, tools and equipment • Half the hours of human effort in the factory • Half the defects in the finished product • Half the factory space for the same output • A tenth or less of in-process inventories • Smaller lot sizes • Increased capacity / throughput • Higher inventory turns • More available floor space • Improved workplace organization • Improved quality : reduced scrap / re-work • Reduced inventories : raw, WIP, FG • Reduced lead times • Greater gross margin • Improved participation & morale Source: The Machine that Changed the World, Womack, Jones, and Roos, 1990. © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.
Background and History • 1574: King Henry III watches the Venice Arsenal produce finished galley ships every hour using continuous flow processes • 1799: Whitney perfects the concept of interchangeable parts • 1902: Sakichi Toyoda establishes the jidoka concept • 1910: Ford moves into Highland Park, the “birthplace of lean manufacturing,” with continuous flow of parts • 1911: Sakichi Toyoda visits the U.S. and see the Model T line for the first time • 1938: JIT concept established at Toyota • 1940: Consolidated Aircraft builds one B-24 bomber per day, witnessed by Ford’s Charles Sorensen, who later improves production to one B-24 per hour • 1949: Taiichi Ohno promoted to shop manager at Toyota, develops “elimination of waste” concept • 1951: Ohno refines TPS to include visual control, employee suggestions, TWI, batch size reduction, and kanban • 1965: Toyota receives Deming Prize for Quality • 1975: First English translations of TPS are drafted • 1980-83: First books on TPS by American authors: Kanban and Zero Inventories • 1990: Womack and Jones publish The Machine That Changed the World, becoming the definitive text creating the term “lean”, followed by Lean Thinking in 1996 A very detailed historical timeline is available at www.superfactory.com © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.
Key figures in lean history • Henry Ford • Founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. • Taiichi Ohno • Long-time employee of Toyota, and author of several books about the Toyota Production System. • Shigeo Shingo • A Japanese industrial engineer who became a leading expert on the Toyota Production System. More than a dozen of his books were translated into English, resulting in him being better known in the West than in Japan. • James Womack • Author of The Machine That Changed the World and Lean Thinking, which jump-started the lean movement in North America © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.
Components and Implementation • 5S & Visual Factory • Cellular Manufacturing • Jidoka • Kaizen • Poka Yoke & Mistake Proofing • Quick Changeover & SMED • Production Preparation Process (3P) • Pull Manufacturing & Just In Time • Standard Work • Theory of Constraints • Total Productive Maintenance • Training Within Industry (TWI) • Value Streams © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.
5S and Visual Factory • 5S • A method of workplace organization • Reduces wastes due to clutter, time to find materials and equipment, duplication of equipment, floorspace, inconsistency • Components of 5S • Sort • Straighten • Shine • Standardize • Sustain • 5S “+1” or “6S” • Some companies add a sixth “S” for Safety © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.
Training Within Industry (TWI) • An often forgotton core component of lean • TWI provides a systematic approach to sustain changes and continuously improve by • Indoctrinating people into an “improvement” frame of mind. • Teaching people how to identify opportunities for improving their jobs. • Training people how to generate ideas to take advantage of these opportunities. • Showing people how to get these ideas into practice right away. • Creating ownership for people to maintain standard work. © 2007 Superfactory™. All Rights Reserved.