gsm global system for mobile communication n.
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  2. DISCUSSION TOPICS • History • Building Blocks • System Architecture • Features (Basic and Advanced) • Advantages of GSM

  3. HISTORY • Early 80’s Europe was experiencing rapid growth in the analog cellular telephone systems • 1982 Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) GSM (Groupe Special Mobile) group was formed to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system • GSM mandate was to develop a standard to be common for the countries that created it – provide service to the entire European continent

  4. HISTORYcontd. • GSM criteria – • Good subjective speech quality • Low terminal and service cost • Support for international roaming – one system for all of Europe • Ability to support handheld terminals • Support for range of new services and facilities • Enhanced Features • ISDN compatibility • Enhance privacy • Security against fraud

  5. HISTORYcontd. • Late 1980’s GSM work was transferred to the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) and SGM (Special Mobile Group) was created • Document the functionality and interaction of every aspect of the GSM network • 1987 ETSI oversees the creation of GSM MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) Association

  6. HISTORYcontd. • Formal objective of the GSM MoU Association is the promotion and evolution of the GSM systems and GSM platforms • Concepts of a published international standard and a constantly evolving common standard are unique to GSM • Work groups throughout the world specifically designed to allow interested parties to meet and work on finding solutions to systems enhancements that will fit into existing programs of GSM operators

  7. HISTORYcontd. • Phase I of GSM specifications was published in 1990 • International demand was so great that the system name was changed from Groupe Special Mobile to Global Systems for Mobile Communications (still GSM) • Commercial service started in mid-1991 • 1992 first paying customers were signed up for service • By 1993 there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries • Early 1994 there were 1.3 million subscribers worldwide • By 1996 there were more than 25 million subscribers worldwide • By October 1997 it had grown to more than 55 million subscribers worldwide

  8. Building Blocks • AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone System • TACS – Total Access Communication System • NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone System

  9. Building Blockscontd. AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone System • analog technology • used in North and South America and approximately 35 other countries • operates in the 800 MHz band using FDMA technology

  10. Building Blockscontd. TACS – Total Access Communication System • variant of AMPS • deployed in a number of countries • primarily in the UK

  11. Building Blockscontd. NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone System • analog technology • deployed in the Benelux countries and Russia • operates in the 450 and 900 MHz band • first technology to offer international roaming – only within the Nordic countries

  12. System Architecture • Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) • Base Station Subsystem (BBS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) • Network Subsystem Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

  13. System ArchitectureMobile Station (MS) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: • Mobile Equipment (ME) 2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

  14. System ArchitectureMobile Station (MS) contd. Mobile Equipment • Produced by many different manufacturers • Must obtain approval from the standardization body • Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)

  15. System ArchitectureMobile Station (MS) contd. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) • Smart card containing the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services • Encoded network identification details • Protected by a password or PIN • Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key information to activate the phone

  16. System ArchitectureBase Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers • Base Transceiver Station (BTS) • Base Station Controller (BSC)

  17. System ArchitectureBase Station Subsystem (BSS) contd. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) • Houses the radio transceivers that define a cell • Handles radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station • Speech and data transmissions from the MS are recoded • Requirements for BTS: ruggedness reliability portability minimum costs

  18. System ArchitectureBase Station Subsystem (BSS) contd. Base Station Controller (BSC) • Manages Resources for BTS • Handles call set up • Location update • Handover for each MS

  19. System ArchitectureNetwork Subsystem Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • Switch speech and data connections between: Base Station Controllers Mobile Switching Centers GSM-networks Other external networks • Heart of the network • Three main jobs: 1) connects calls from sender to receiver 2) collects details of the calls made and received 3) supervises operation of the rest of the network components

  20. System ArchitectureNetwork Subsystem contd. • Home Location Registers (HLR) - contains administrative information of each subscriber - current location of the mobile • Visitor Location Registers (VLR) - contains selected administrative information from the HLR • authenticates the user • tracks which customers have the phone on and ready to receive a call • periodically updates the database on which phones are turned on and ready to receive calls

  21. System ArchitectureNetwork Subsystem contd. • Authentication Center (AUC) • mainly used for security • data storage location and functional part of the network • Ki is the primary element • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) • Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The Black List and the Gray List • Optional database

  22. System Architecture

  23. Basic Features Provided by GSM • Call Waiting - Notification of an incoming call while on the handset • Call Hold - Put a caller on hold to take another call • Call Barring - All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls • Call Forwarding - Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user • Multi Party Call Conferencing - Link multiple calls together

  24. Advanced Features Provided by GSM • Calling Line ID - incoming telephone number displayed • Alternate Line Service - one for personal calls - one for business calls • Closed User Group - call by dialing last for numbers • Advice of Charge - tally of actual costs of phone calls • Fax & Data - Virtual Office / Professional Office • Roaming - services and features can follow customer from market to market

  25. Advantages of GSM • Crisper, cleaner quieter calls • Security against fraud and eavesdropping • International roaming capability in over 100 countries • Improved battery life • Efficient network design for less expensive system expansion • Efficient use of spectrum • Advanced features such as short messaging and caller ID • A wide variety of handsets and accessories • High stability mobile fax and data at up to 9600 baud • Ease of use with over the air activation, and all account information is held in a smart card which can be moved from handset to handset