OVERVIEW What is Communication? The Process of Human Communication Some truths about Communication The role of adaptation Communication channels in Business Challenges & Barriers to Communication
What is Communication? “There may be no single thing more important in our efforts to achieve meaningful work and fulfilling relationships than to learn and practice the art of communication.” --Max De Pree, Author The Art of Leadership
The Communication Process Phase 1: Sender Has an Idea Channel And Medium Six-Phase Process Phase 6: Receiver Sends Feedback Phase 2: Sender Encodes Idea Phase 5: Receiver Decodes Message Phase 3: Sender Transmits Message Phase 4: Receiver Gets Message Situation
sensory world sensory world A Model of the Communication Process --medium-- Kelly Justin
Some Basic Truths about Communication Meanings sent are not always received. Meaning is in the mind. The symbols of communication are imperfect.
Writing 9% Speaking 30% Listening 45% Reading 16% Usage of BusinessCommunicationChannels Sending Receiving
Communication Challenges in Today’s Workplace Advances in Technology Globalization Workforce Diversity Team-Based Organizations
Communication Barriers Perception and language Restrictive environments Distractions Deceptive tactics Information overload
Types of Communication Internal and External Communication Communication Channels
Internal Communication Official Structure The Grapevine Formal Chain of Command Informal Networking Up, Down, Across Formal Power Lines Unofficial Lines of Power
External Communication Formal Contacts InformalContacts Marketing Employees Public Relations Managers
CommunicationClimate Overall Structure Corporate Culture Level of Feedback Flat High More Open Tall Low Less Open
Basic communication Verbal & Non Verbal Communication Body language
BasicCommunication Structure Intent Less Structured Harder to Classify More Spontaneous Less Control Nonverbal Nonverbal More Structured Easier to Study Conscious Purpose More Control Verbal Verbal
Verbal and Non verbal Communication Verbal: Communication with words
Areas of NV Communication Kinesics Proxemics Time language Paralanguage Physical context
Kinesics: body’s physical movements Face and Eyes Gestures Posture Appearance
A person can stop speaking, but he cannot stop communicating with his body
NON-VERBAL symbols are four times more effective than VERBAL ones
Body movements include: Facial expression Eye movement
Body movements include : Hands Feet Whole body
The meaning of gestures. Examples Doubt: we raise an eyebrow Scratching one’s nose: puzzled
Masking Method by which we control our body so that it will not send out messages that our mind wants to hide
Posture Posture is not only a way of punctuating a conversation, but it is also the way individuals relate with each other when they are in a group.
Recommendations The greeting: a good starting point (show openness) Don’t blink constantly Try to keep a direct look and establish eye contact with the people you are talking to
Recommendations (Continued) Maintain an appropriate position and avoid constant abrupt movements Control the movements of your hands and keep them visible Do not allow any object to come between you and your audience
Recommendations (Continued) Do not cross your arms over your chest Do not cover your mouth with your hand while you are speaking Maintain a relaxed posture
Proxemics: how and what we arrange in personal space Intimate: physical contact to 18 inches Personal: 18 inches to 4 feet Social: 4 to 12 feet Public: 12 feet to range of eyesight and hearing
Time language The meaning and value we give to time Time was equated with money/time and management is important Culture specific Everyone culture has its own time language
Paralanguage: how we say things Is speech fast, slow, high pitched, deep, smooth, disjointed? All convey different meanings I practice good business communication I practice good business communication I practice good business communication I practice good business communication I practice good business communication
Physical context: Refers to colour and layout/design Colours are associated with moods e.g. Black & grey convey negative feelings, blue & yellow positive feelings Layout/design of surroundings communicate something e.g. carpeting, arrangement of desks/chairs
CLARITY • Apply the K.I.S.S formula.(Keep it short and simple) • Choose short ,familiar, conversational words. • Construct effective sentences and paragraphs. • Avoid unfamiliar words ,abbreviations, Slang or Jargon.
Clarity and Short Sentences Writing short sentences. (16-18 words/sentence = mid level). You can write short sentences in two ways: • by limiting content, • by using words economically.
Cut surplus words. • You are hereby instructed to send all daily reports directly to this office as promptly as possible. Send all reports to this office promptly. • Your attention is directed to paragraph 3, which summarizes the findings of this study. Paragraph 3 summarizes the findings of this study.
Long Unfamiliar Word Abbreviate Accomplish Approximately Ascertain Commence Considerable Determine Detrimental Short, Familiar Words Shorten Do About Find out Begin Much Decide Harmful Use Short, Familiar words
COMPLETENESS • Answer all questions asked: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? • Give something extra, when desirable.
CONCISENESS • Shorten or omit wordy expressions: Use single word substitutes; avoid redundancy • Include only relevant statements. • Avoid unnecessary repetition, long sentences, relative pronouns, expletives and passive verbs.
CORRECTNESS • Use the right level of Language. • Include only accurate facts, words and figures. • Maintain acceptable writing mechanics.
CONCRETENESS • Use specific facts and figures. • Put action in your verbs. • Choose vivid image-building words.
We have found that this technique is successful. Your department may hire some new employees. Our research shows that 87 percent of those using this technique are successful Your department may hire three new stock clerks. Prefer the concrete to the abstract.
classify compute explore inform negotiate observe represent make a classification make a computation conduct an exploration provide information engage in negotiation make an observation provide representation Prefer strong verbs to verbs camouflaged as nouns. Camouflaged Verb Strong Verb
complete failure untruth put an end to upraise fiasco lie destroy boost Consider the strength and vigor of words.
CONSIDERATION • Focus on “you” instead of “ I “ and “WE”. • Emphasize positive, pleasant facts. • Avoid negative words.
Accenting positive language Negative: Your misunderstanding of your policy prompts your accusation that we are at fault. Positive: Section 3 of your policy makes us responsible only when we service the equipment. Negative: We must refuse your request to use our equipment. Positive: As we are a state office, our equipment can be used for government purposes only.
Emphasizing the you viewpoint. We: Our policy requires that you pay by the 10th of the month in order to earn the discount. You: You can earn the discount by paying by the 10th of the month. We: We are offering a special discount to all our loyal customers. You: As a loyal customer, you will receive a special discount.