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COMMUNICATION SKILLS

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

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COMMUNICATION SKILLS

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  1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS

  2. What is Communication?

  3. Communication has been derived from the Latin word "communis", meaning to share. • Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share meaning. • "sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas.

  4. (cont) • Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient.

  5. Most common ways to communicate Visual Images Speaking Writing Body Language

  6. Purposes of Communication

  7. To solve problems Reassurance To form and maintain relationship alleviate distress COMMUNICATION convey feelings give information make decisions persuade

  8. Critical success factor for life The majority of our perceived ability comes from how we communicate 30% What we know 70% How we communicate it Source: CGAP Direct

  9. Components of clinical competence • Knowledge base • Diagnostic skills and problem solving • Physical exam skills • Communication skills

  10. Communication skills - why bother? • Why learn communication skills? • Any benefits? • Can you learn communication skills? • What is there to learn? • How is it taught? • Where next?

  11. Think, Pair & Share • Benefits??

  12. Evidence Based Rationale • Enhancing communication leads to better outcome: • Increased: • understanding & recall • Adherence • Symptoms relief • Physiological outcomes • Patient safety • Patient satisfaction • Doctor satisfaction • Decreased: • Costs • Complaints and malpractice litigations

  13. Evidence Based Rationale • Enhancing communication leads to more effective consultation for Dr& Pt • Accuracy • Efficiency • Supportiveness • Relationship characterized by a partnership • Improving communication leads to better coordination of care( within practice team, with pts/ family, etc)

  14. Benefits • Doctors with good communication skills have greater job satisfaction and less work stress, • Delivery of high-quality health care. (Roter 1987, Betakis 1991, Stewart 1995)

  15. The Toronto consensus statement “stressed that the main complaint of patients is related to “communication problems and not to clinical competency.” (Simpson 1991)

  16. “The main remarks made by patients in the PHC centers in Riyadh was that: “physicians were not listening enough to their complaints.” ( Saeed 2001)

  17. Can communication skills be taught? • communication is a clinical skill • it is a series of learnt skills • experience is a poor teacher • there is conclusive evidence that communication skills can be taught • and that communication skills teaching is retained

  18. How to teach communication skills? • Observation • Video or audio playback • Well-intentioned feedback • Rehearsal • Active small group or 1:1 learning

  19. Effective communication is essential to the practice of high quality medicine

  20. communication process

  21. THINK ARTICULATE COMMUNICATE INFLUENCE

  22. FEEDBACK

  23. DESIRED ACTION

  24. Sender Receiver Message

  25. C o m p o n e n t s o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION CONTEXT Stimuli Sender –Encoder Thought, or an idea to be sent to the receiver in true meanings Message Medium Verbal, Non-verbal Receiver - Decoder Thought or the idea of sender received in right perception NOISE FEEDBACK Verbal, Non-verbal

  26. Setting:- • Privacy, • Avoid interruptions, • Comfortable lighting & temperature, • Arrangement of seats, • Distance, • Level.

  27. Co-operation Confrontation Conversation Seating arrangements of doctor and patient

  28. Two basic types of questions • Closed questions: • Get a one-word response and inhibit thought. • Questions begin with who, when and which • Open-ended questions: • Invite unique thought, reflection or an explanation. • Questions begin with how, what and how (not why!).

  29. Probing Questions • Use to:- • Clarify: What do you mean by that? • Justify: What makes you think that? • Check accuracy: You definitely took 3 tablets a day?

  30. Questions to be avoided • Complex Questions: “Did your vomiting start yesterday or today & have you had diarrhoea?” • Leading Questions: “ you don’t sleep well, do you?”

  31. Important of Listening:- • 80 % TOP EXECUTIVES BELIVES IT AS MOST IMPORTANT SKILL • STRENGTHENS ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS • CREATES OPPORTUNITIES OF INNOVATION

  32. TYPES OF LISTENING • CRITICAL LISTENING • UNDERSTAND & EVALUATE THE MEANING • LOGIC OF ARGUMENT • STREANTH OF EVIDENCE • INTENTIONS & MOTIVES • VALIDITY OF CONCLUSION

  33. EMPATHIC LISTENING • UNDERSTAND FEELINGS,NEEDS, WANTS • AVOID JUMPING WITH ADVICE UNTILL NOT ASKED FOR. • APPREACIATE HIS/HER FEELINGS & UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION

  34. ACTIVE LISTENING • AVOID OR TURN OFF ANY BIASES OR FILTERS TO TRUALY HEAR & UNDERSTAND THE SPEAKERS MESSAGE • ENCOURAGE SPEAKERS WITH POSITIVE BODY LAUNGUAGE • Passive Listening??

  35. ACTIVE LISTENING • LISTENING/RECEIVING / RESPONDING • PHYSICALLY HEARING THE MESSAGE & ACKNOWLEDGING IT

  36. ACTIVE LISTENING…(con) Use Non-verbal Communication: • Smile, • Gestures, • Eye contact, • Your posture.

  37. ACTIVE LISTENING…(con) Give Feedback • Remember that what someone says and what we hear can be amazingly different. • Repeat back or summarize to ensure that you understand. • Restate what you think you heard and ask, "Have I understood you correctly?"

  38. Techniques to improve listening skills SUMMARIZE Pull together the main points of a speaker PARAPHRASE Restate what was said in your own words QUESTION Challenge speaker to think further, clarifying both your and their understanding

  39. Practice Paraphrasing • Paraphrasing is simply restating what another person has said in your own words. • Use phrases such as: • In other words… • I gather that… • If I understand what you are saying… • What I hear you saying is… • Pardon my interruption, but let me see if I understand you correctly…

  40. BARRIERS IN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • SELECTIVE LISTENING • DEFENSIVE LISTENING • LACK OF COMMON BACKGROUND

  41. Non-Verbal Communication 55% Face and body: non-verbal communication or face and body language. 38% voice dynamics: tone + inflection + volume + accent + non-word sounds; and...

  42. Non- Verbal Communication • Visual: expression, eye contact, eye movement • Listening: carefully, actively, memory • Kinesthetic: Posture, distance, mobility, muscle tone, hand movement, etc

  43. RECOGNIZING NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION • FACIAL EXPRESSION • GESTURES & POSTURES • VOCAL CHARACTRISTICS

  44. RECOGNIZING NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION • PERSONAL APPREARENCE • TOUCH • TIME & SPACE

  45. Example of body language • Folded arms and leg crossed away from you: • Rejection • Tapping fingers: • Impatience • Avoiding eye contact: • Untrustworthy

  46. Example of body language • Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly: • Boredom • Biting nails: • Anxiety • Shoulder hunched, hands in pockets • Depression/Dejection

  47. Effective Communication Skills (Models)

  48. Effective Communication Skills • Greet the person by their names. • Make eye contact ,introduce yourself warmly • Smile(ease the tension on either side) • Shake hands. Ask the person to sit down by indicating a chair. • establish a rapport by asking a simple open- ended question , • explain that you may need to take notes,