African Americans in the Civil War Key Topic 3- Civil War and Reconstruction 1861-77 African Americans in the American Civil War Starter- watch the video and make a list of the key points Extension-how far was progress made? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8-GzX4Jz_w
Key words/concepts • African Americans in the Civil War: African-Americans served in the in the Civil War on both the Union and Confederate side. In the Union army, over 179,000 African American men served in over 160 units, as well as more serving in the Navy and in support positions. • Sea Islands Experiment: (does this show success?) The Port Royal Experiment was a program begun during the American Civil War in which former slaves successfully worked on the land abandoned by planters. In 1861 the Union liberated the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbour, Port Royal. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CbQAIYcxck
AN overview- PEE: fighting for the UNION • African Americans were finally able to join the Union army in 1862 after Congress passed a law. Once the Emancipation Proclamation was signed more and more African Americans began joining the Union Army. • African Americans where paid nearly half as roads and guarding supplies. African Americans where paid nearly half as much as white soldiers and soon begin protesting this discrimination. By 1863, African American troops were fighting in battles against Confederate troops. • In 1864 the United States War Dept. declared all soldiers would receive equal pay. Nearly 200,000 fought for the Union and nearly 40,000 lost their lives in the war.
AN overview- PEE: fighting for the CONFEDERACY • When the Civil War began enslaved persons made up roughly 30% of the Confederacy’s population—that was about 3.5 million people enslaved. • From the beginning enslaved people participated in the war efforts. Some were nurses and cooks in the army. HOWEVER • Though the Emancipation Proclamation “freed” the slaves in rebellion states, many were still held as slaves and continued to work on plantations. • However, most slaves slowed down their work and a few refused to work at all. Those who slowed or stopped their labours, hoped to weaken the South’s war effort. • Southern African Americans knew that when the victorious Union troops arrived they would be FREE (or at least on paper)
African Americans in the Union and Confederacy (fill in the table) Extension-to what extent were the N and S very different in their treatment and use of African Americans and why?
African Americans in the Union: • In the North many African Americans wished to help in Union efforts, however before 1862 African Americans could not serve in the Union army. • Almost 200,000 African Americans serve in the Union Army and Navy • Segregated into all-black units, such as the Massachusetts 54th Regiment • Treated Badly by the white generals and other soldiers. • Proved to be vital members of the Army, fighting in every major battle they could. • President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation opened the door for blacks to become enlisted in the Union Army. Although they had wanted to participate in the war effort at earlier dates, they were prohibited by a federal law that dated back to 1792. Lincoln also feared that if their recruitment was authorized, the border states would secede from the Union.
Loss of African America Lives • African American soldiers comprised about 10% of the entire Union Army. Losses among African Americans were high, and from all reported casualties, approximately one-third of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil War. • One division of the African American army became known as the “army of freemen,” in which 37,000 African Americans died.
TREATMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICANS: • Although African Americans proved their loyalty to the Union Army and proved their abilities in battle discrimination occurred still in pay and other areas. According to the Militia Act of 1862, soldiers of African descent were to receive $10.00 a month, plus a clothing deduction of $3.50. White soldiers in both the Union army and navy received $13.00 a month with no deduction for clothing. • African American divisions struggled with the discriminations including equal pay until June 15, 1864, when equal pay for all black soldiers was granted by Congress. Many African Americans refused money until this issuing of equality.
Confederate use of African Americans: • General Patrick Cleburne and several other Confederate officers in the Army of the Tennessee in January, 1864 proposed using slaves as soldiers, since their services were being used in the Union Army. Cleburne suggested offering the slaves freedom if they survived the war. The president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis refuses the proposal and forbad any further discussion • This idea never died out and by the 1864 fall, as the south lost more ground, some believed that defeat could only be stopped by employing slaves in the confederate army. The confederate Congress passed the General Order 14 on March 13th, and President Davis signed the order to a law. The Order was formally issued on March 23rd, 1865 but to no surprised few African American companies were raided plus the end of the war came before the slaves could be made useful.
African Americans in the Confederacy • It has been estimated that over 65, 000 Southern blacks, both slaves and freedmen, were enlisted in the Confederate Army • At least one Black Confederate was a non-commissioned officer. James Washington, Co. D 34th Texas Cavalry, “Terrell’s Texas Cavalry” became it’s 3rd Sergeant. In comparison, The highest ranking Black Union soldier during the war was a Sergeant Major.
Confederacy Treatment of African Americans • Because the Confederate Army needed to make service in the army seem beneficial and worth it to the slaves and free African Americans their treatment was often much better than of their northern counterparts. • Free black earned the same pay as white confederate privates. This was not the case in the Union army where blacks did not receive equal pay. • At the Confederate Buffalo Forge in Rockbridge County, Virginia, skilled black workers "earned on average three times the wages of white Confederate soldiers and more than most Confederate army officers an amount of about $350-600 a year. • However most unwillingly joined. • They were only accepted as troops and allowed arms in 1865 when the South feared losing
Slavery During the War: • Slavery was on the edge during the Civil War. Many slaves escaped to the North to fight for the Union forces in what was known as “contraband camps.” Many slaves remained on the plantations of the South for unknown reasons, and assisted their masters on the plantations and behind the confederate forces.
Debate time- 4 mins • Why do you think Black soldiers were paidbetter in the Confederate Army than they were in the Union? Even though the Confederacy were Pro-slavery and based in the South.
End of Slavery! • The confiscation act was established in 1861 and made it legal to claim enemy property at times of war and many contraband, former slaves escaped to Union Camps • The 2nd confiscation Act of July 1862 frees these slaves and allows the Union to use these former slaves in any capacity in the army Q- Explain how the American Civil War helped legally end slavery (use this slide and the next and PEE)
End of Slavery: 13th Amendment & Emancipation Proclamation Issued in 1865 the 13th Amendment freed 4 million people from slavery, and 500,000 from the border states. The freed slaves gained entire protection of the Constitution and were regarded as full citizens • Although protection was guaranteed, African-Americans suffered economic hardship and political oppression for generations Emancipation Proclamation (1/1/1863) • Lincoln had said that if states were still rebelling by new year’s 1863, he’d free the slaves in Southern States • U.S. government recognizes those slaves as free • Still slavery in the border states, only in areas outside of Lincoln’s control • Commits U.S. to a policy of abolition in the South • As Union army progresses, more slaves freed
Plenary- write down the Q and A • Explain the effect of the Civil War on African Americans. • Use your table and your hand out you glued in your books • Remember many had fought for their own freedom. • Many still faced prejudice- the next battle would be one for equality.
Homework-Overview of African Americans in the Civil War Read page 65 Use two different colours • Positivetreatment and experiences • Negative treatment and experiences Write two PEE paragraphs to explain the positive and negative experiences of African American Soldiers- how far was their inequality?