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Electronic Payment Systems

Electronic Payment Systems

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Electronic Payment Systems

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  1. Electronic Payment Systems

  2. Outline • Types of money • Fiduciary v. scriptural • Token v. notational • Types of payment systems • Cash • Credit cards • SSL (TLS) protocol • Intermediaries • PayPal • Smart cards • Electronic Bill Presentment

  3. Types of Money:Fiduciary vs. Scriptural • Fiduciary money (fiat money, legal tender) • Issued by a central (government) bank • Has real “discharging power” (to discharge debts) • Cannot be refused • Scriptural money (not legal tender) • Money not issued by central bank • Examples: bank accounts, travelers checks, gift certificates, scrips • Discharging power based on trust in issuer • Can be refused

  4. Types of Money:Token vs. Notational • Token money (value represented by physical article) • Represented by a physical article (e.g. cash, gift certificate, traveler’s check) • Can be lost • Notational money (value held in account balance) • Examples: bank accounts, frequent flyer miles • Transferred by order • Requires clearance (determining net effect of multiple orders) • Requires settlement (payment in fiduciary money) • Hybrid money • Check, telephone card (carries promise of future service)

  5. -2. CENTRAL BANK ISSUES FIDUCIARY MONEY (ANTI-FORGERY) + (SERIAL NUMBERS) -1. CENTRAL BANK SELLS CASH TO BUYER’S BANK 0. BUYER’S BANK ALLOWS BUYER TO DRAW CASH FROM BUYER’S ACCOUNT CENTRAL BANK 4. SELLER’S BANK SENDS CASH TO CENTRAL BANK 3. SELLER’S BANK CREDITS SELLER’S BANK ACCOUNT BUYER’S BANK SELLER’S BANK 2. SELLER DEPOSITS CASH IN SELLER’S BANK ACCOUNT THE VISIBLE TRANSACTION BUYER SELLER 1. BUYER PHYSICALLY GIVES CASH TO SELLER Cash Transaction

  6. Minimum Transaction Value Typical Transaction Value Maximum Transaction Value  Macro $5.00 $50.00 Mini $0.10 $1.00 $10.00 Micro $0.001 $0.01 $1.00 Ecommerce Payment Ranges SOURCE: COMPAQ CORP.

  7. Types of Payment Systems • Credit card • SSL, SET protocols • Payment orders, direct transfers, checks • Automated Clearing House (ACH) • Online Banking • Wingspan • Intermediaries • PayPal • Stored-Value Cards, Smart Cards, Wallets • Mondex

  8. Types of Payment Systems • Micropayment (usually below $0.10) • Millicent • Aggregation • Centralized account for merchants + customers (Qpass) • Digital Scrip • Flooz, Beenz • Electronic Cash • eCash

  9. Credit Cards • The most expensive ePayment mechanism • MasterCard: $0.29 + 2% of transaction value • A $100 charge costs the merchant $2.29 • Currently the most convenient method • Advantage: allows credit • People can buy more than they can afford • Disadvantages: • doesn’t work for small amounts (too expensive) • doesn’t work for large amounts (too expensive)

  10. Parties to a Credit Card Transaction CARD, TELEPHONE, INTERNET BUYER SELLER DIALUP OR LEASED LINE U.S. MAIL! SELLER’S BANK BUYER’S BANK CARD ASSOCIATION PROPRIETARY NETWORK

  11. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) if it has one SOURCE: WEB SECURITY

  12. PayPal • Pay anyone, anywhere via email • Draws funds from user’s bank account, places credit hold on credit card for guarantee • 3 million users • Accounts insured up to $100,000 • Based on automated clearinghouse • Withdraw funds anytime, or send to someone else • Mobile payments (WAP)

  13. PAYPAL ACCOUNT A . . . ACCOUNT X PayPal 1. A PAYS X VIA PAYPAL (A HAS ENOUGH IN PAYPAL ACCOUNT) 6. PAYPAL NOTIFIES X OF PAYMENT. X CHOOSES PAYMENT METHOD ACCOUNT HOLDER A ACCOUNT HOLDER X INTERNET EMAIL 5. PAYPAL CREDITS X’S PAYPAL ACCOUNT ACCOUNT HOLDER A’S CREDIT CARD 2. OR: PAYPAL CHARGES X’S CREDIT CARD 3. OR: PAYPAL INITIATES ACH DEBIT ACCOUNT HOLDER A’S BANK ACCOUNT HOLDER X’S BANK 7. OR: PAYPAL INITIATES ACH CREDIT ACH PROCESSOR PAYPAL’S BANK 4. FUNDS ARE DEPOSITED IN PAYPAL’S BANK 8. OR: PAYPAL MAILS CHECK TO X

  14. Smart Cards • Magnetic stripe • 140 bytes, cost $0.20-0.75 • Memory cards • 1-4 KB memory, no processor, cost $1.00-2.50 • Optical memory cards • 4 megabytes read-only (CD-like), cost $7.00-12.00 • Microprocessor cards • Imbedded microprocessor • (OLD) 8-bit processor, 16 KB ROM, 512 bytes RAM • Equivalent power to IBM XT PC, cost $7.00-15.00 • 32-bit processors now available • Intelligent, active devices with defenses

  15. Smart Card Applications • Ticketless travel: Seoul bus system • 4M cards, 1B transactions since 1996 • Authentication, ID • Medical records • Ecash • Store loyalty programs • Personal profiles • Government • Licenses • Mall parking . . .

  16. Microprocessor Contacts Card (Upside-down) Epoxy Smart Card Structure Contacts: Contacts (8) SOURCE: SMART CARD FORUM

  17. Mondex • Smart-card-based, stored-value card (SVC) • Subsidiary of MasterCard • NatWest (National Westminister Bank, UK) et al. • Secret chip-to-chip transfer protocol • Value is not in strings alone; must be on Mondex card • Loaded through ATM • ATM does not know transfer protocol; connects with secure device at bank • Spending at merchants having a Mondex value transfer terminal

  18. Mondex Overview SOURCES: OKI, MONDEX USA

  19. Mondex Components (Hitachi) Electronic Cash Register Cashless ATM PCMCIA Reader/Writer Key Fob Balance Reader Electronic Wallet SOURCE: HITACHI

  20. Financial Aggregation • Idea: allow access to all assets through a single portal • Citigroup • CheckFree demo, iBill on-line checks demo, BlueGill • Paytrust • Electronic bill presentment

  21. EBPP Participants PERSONAL FINANCE SYSTEM, AGGREGATOR, BANK DATA PARSING BILL FORMATTING BILLER HOSTING DATA FLOW  BILL INFO PAYMENT ORDERS  MONEY FLOW PAYMENT AND REMITTANCE PROCESSING SOURCE: EBILLING.ORG

  22. Key Takeaways • epayment security accomplished with PKI • PayPal is the fastest-growing technology in history • Rising use of smart cards • Face-to-face minipayments • Little movement toward electronic cash • Online banking retains customers • Electronic bill presentment/payment add value • Profound changes in money flow are afoot

  23. Q A &