The Rise of Nations More importantly– the rise of NATIONALISM
FranceandEnglandSplit • Multiple wars between Feudal States led France and England to emerge as individual nations • No longer were they intertwined by nobles owning land in both regions. • Marriage strengthens Nations (English King, Henry II to European Heiress, Eleanor of Aquitaine)
Magna Carta • John Softsword’s lost battles to France caused him to tax raise taxes to all-time high. Nobles UNHAPPY! • June 15, 1215 • Originally for wealthy nobles, later applied to all citizens • No taxation w/out representation • Trial by Jury • Main Idea: Limited Monarchy!!
Model Parliament “What affects all should be approved by all” • King Edward I realized with rise of cities/ trade he could now tax middle-class, not just nobles.
He called together a parliament that represented commoners and nobles Edward
Parliament Becomes Check on King’s Power • Eventually split to 2 houses • House of Commons • House of Lords
French King’s Gained Power • Estates General • First Estate: Clergy • Second Estate: Lords • Third Estate: Middle-class • Unlike parliament in England, gave king more power over nobles
Result: nation-states • Nation-states were made of people with similar culture and language that occupied a specific territory under ONE government. • Government was Monarchy. • People feel LOYAL to their country.
Crisis for the Church • Boniface VIII loses power for the papacy • Where is home: Rome or Avignon? • 3 Popes? The Great Schism! • Scholarly Authority; John Wycliffe and Huss • The great Schism Ends, but who has real power?
Power Struggle: King or Pope • French King Philip IV taxed churches to pay for war with England • Pope Boniface VIII issued a papal bull. • No more taxing of church • Spiritual power always supreme over secular power • Philip’s Response: He laughed
Rome V. Avignon • French Bishop named Pope, Clement V. • He claimed that political violence threatened him and he moved from: Rome, Italy to Avignon, France • For 67 years, papacy lived in extravagance in France • Catholics from other nations NOT happy
The John’s • Two Professors decided to speak out against the church with VERY different results. John Wycliffe translating Bible to English
John Wycliffe • English Hero who translated bible into English Wycliffe’s Major Ideas: • True head of church was Jesus, not Pope • Clergy should live in poverty • Bible -not pope- final authority on Christian life Wycliffe’s Results: • Tried for Heresy but trial resulted in street riots and his release
John Huss Huss’s Major Ideas: • Bible was final authority, not Pope Huss’s Results: Excommunicated in 1411 Burned at the stake in 1414
The Plague • Raging Fever • Black swellings • Death in 24 hrs. • 25,000,000/ 1/3 of Europe’s pop. • Plague kept returning until 1600’s • Priests also afraid and people got angry • Peasants revolted b/c with pop. decline, they did not have to listen to Nobles– Serfdom began to disappear.
Video The Black Death (1347-51) www.unitedstreaming.com
Video Quiz 1-5 • 1. It is estimated that ________ people died of plague in Western Europe between 1347 and 1351. (5 million,15 million or 25 million) • 2. Between the years 1300 and 1450, due to the combined effects of plague, famine and warfare, the total population of Europe declined by about ______ to ______ of its original numbers. (1/10 to 1/4, 1/4 to 1/3, 1/2to 2/3). • 3. There were three important and long-lasting effects of the radical depopulation of Europe. These were: 1.___________________________________ 2.___________________________________ 3.___________________________________ • 4. In the year 1347, Italian traders returning to Genoa, from an outpost called Caffa on the Black Sea, brought more than trade goods to Europe. What else did they bring? • 5. Under the manorial system of agriculture, peasant laborers called _________ worked the fields for their wealthy masters, in exchange for protection and a share of the crops they raised.
Video Quiz 6-10 • 6. During plague times, religious extremists called ____________________ traveled from town to town, preaching and publicly whipping one another. • 7. Fasting and making pilgrimages to holy shrines are called Acts of _____________ and were commonplace activities in plague times. Such acts of religious devotion were believed to help purify the soul of its sins. • 8. Throughout history, people experiencing extreme hardships have often searched for someone to blame for their difficulties. During the plague years, ___________ were often blamed for the spread of the disease. • 9. Today, the plague is not the menace it was during the Middle Ages because it can be treated with__________________. • 10. Before, during, and after the plague years, a war called the ___________________________raged between ______________ and _______________.
Four Stages of War • 1337-60: English captured much of France • 1361-96: France reconquers most land • 1397-1420: England conquers N. ½ of France • 1421-53: Joan of Arc leads troops to finally take back France (except Calais).
Arise from the Ashes Three Strong Nation-States: France England Spain
Source of Power As feudalism was ending, the strongest countries derived their power from new sources. Professional army Professional officials Control of taxes