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The Rise of Nations

The Rise of Nations

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The Rise of Nations

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  1. The Rise of Nations More importantly– the rise of NATIONALISM

  2. FranceandEnglandSplit • Multiple wars between Feudal States led France and England to emerge as individual nations • No longer were they intertwined by nobles owning land in both regions. • Marriage strengthens Nations (English King, Henry II to European Heiress, Eleanor of Aquitaine)

  3. Magna Carta • John Softsword’s lost battles to France caused him to tax raise taxes to all-time high. Nobles UNHAPPY! • June 15, 1215 • Originally for wealthy nobles, later applied to all citizens • No taxation w/out representation • Trial by Jury • Main Idea: Limited Monarchy!!

  4. Model Parliament “What affects all should be approved by all” • King Edward I realized with rise of cities/ trade he could now tax middle-class, not just nobles.

  5. He called together a parliament that represented commoners and nobles Edward

  6. Parliament Becomes Check on King’s Power • Eventually split to 2 houses • House of Commons • House of Lords

  7. French King’s Gained Power • Estates General • First Estate: Clergy • Second Estate: Lords • Third Estate: Middle-class • Unlike parliament in England, gave king more power over nobles

  8. Result: nation-states • Nation-states were made of people with similar culture and language that occupied a specific territory under ONE government. • Government was Monarchy. • People feel LOYAL to their country.

  9. Crisis for the Church • Boniface VIII loses power for the papacy • Where is home: Rome or Avignon? • 3 Popes? The Great Schism! • Scholarly Authority; John Wycliffe and Huss • The great Schism Ends, but who has real power?

  10. Papal Bull

  11. Power Struggle: King or Pope • French King Philip IV taxed churches to pay for war with England • Pope Boniface VIII issued a papal bull. • No more taxing of church • Spiritual power always supreme over secular power • Philip’s Response: He laughed

  12. Rome V. Avignon • French Bishop named Pope, Clement V. • He claimed that political violence threatened him and he moved from: Rome, Italy to Avignon, France • For 67 years, papacy lived in extravagance in France • Catholics from other nations NOT happy

  13. The Great Schism

  14. The John’s • Two Professors decided to speak out against the church with VERY different results. John Wycliffe translating Bible to English

  15. John Wycliffe • English Hero who translated bible into English Wycliffe’s Major Ideas: • True head of church was Jesus, not Pope • Clergy should live in poverty • Bible -not pope- final authority on Christian life Wycliffe’s Results: • Tried for Heresy but trial resulted in street riots and his release

  16. John Huss Huss’s Major Ideas: • Bible was final authority, not Pope Huss’s Results: Excommunicated in 1411 Burned at the stake in 1414

  17. Plague and Famine Struck

  18. The Black Death

  19. The Plague • Raging Fever • Black swellings • Death in 24 hrs. • 25,000,000/ 1/3 of Europe’s pop. • Plague kept returning until 1600’s • Priests also afraid and people got angry • Peasants revolted b/c with pop. decline, they did not have to listen to Nobles– Serfdom began to disappear.

  20. Video The Black Death (1347-51)

  21. Video Quiz 1-5 • 1. It is estimated that ________ people died of plague in Western Europe between 1347 and 1351. (5 million,15 million or 25 million) • 2. Between the years 1300 and 1450, due to the combined effects of plague, famine and warfare, the total population of Europe declined by about ______ to ______ of its original numbers. (1/10 to 1/4, 1/4 to 1/3, 1/2to 2/3). • 3. There were three important and long-lasting effects of the radical depopulation of Europe. These were: 1.___________________________________ 2.___________________________________ 3.___________________________________ • 4. In the year 1347, Italian traders returning to Genoa, from an outpost called Caffa on the Black Sea, brought more than trade goods to Europe. What else did they bring? • 5. Under the manorial system of agriculture, peasant laborers called _________ worked the fields for their wealthy masters, in exchange for protection and a share of the crops they raised.

  22. Video Quiz 6-10 • 6. During plague times, religious extremists called ____________________ traveled from town to town, preaching and publicly whipping one another. • 7. Fasting and making pilgrimages to holy shrines are called Acts of _____________ and were commonplace activities in plague times. Such acts of religious devotion were believed to help purify the soul of its sins. • 8. Throughout history, people experiencing extreme hardships have often searched for someone to blame for their difficulties. During the plague years, ___________ were often blamed for the spread of the disease. • 9. Today, the plague is not the menace it was during the Middle Ages because it can be treated with__________________. • 10. Before, during, and after the plague years, a war called the ___________________________raged between ______________ and _______________.

  23. Hundred Years’ War

  24. Four Stages of War • 1337-60: English captured much of France • 1361-96: France reconquers most land • 1397-1420: England conquers N. ½ of France • 1421-53: Joan of Arc leads troops to finally take back France (except Calais).

  25. Joan of Arc

  26. Arise from the Ashes Three Strong Nation-States: France England Spain

  27. Source of Power As feudalism was ending, the strongest countries derived their power from new sources. Professional army Professional officials Control of taxes

  28. The Renaissance Begins