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MeSH for Searchers

MeSH for Searchers

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MeSH for Searchers

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  1. MeSH for Searchers Medical Library Association Dallas, TX, May 17, 2002 Carolyn Anne Reid, M.A., AHIP

  2. MeSH for Searchers • Overview of the Course • General Introduction to MeSH • Applying Basic Indexing Principles • Coordinate indexing • Specificity • Subheadings • Check Tags • Interpreting MeSH Annotations MeSH for Searchers

  3. MeSH for Searchers • Overview, cont. • Publication Types • Pharmacologic Actions • Neoplasm Searching • Vendor Variations of MeSH • Keeping Up • Questions and General Discussion MeSH for Searchers

  4. General Introduction to MeSH • History • Predecessors • Card file used by catalogers • Authority list developed for indexing Current List of Medical Literature, 1954 MeSH for Searchers

  5. General Introduction to MeSH BONE MARROW X MARROW XX BLOOD CELLS XX HEMOPOLETIC SYSTEM Diseases X PANMYELOPHTHISIS BONE TISSUE see also ENDOSTEUM see also OSSIFICATION see also PERIOSTEUM X OSTEOBLASTS X OSTEOCLASTS BONE TUBERCULOSIS see TUBERCULOSIS, OSTEOARTICULAR BONES see also EPIPHYSES see also SKELETON abnormalities X ARACHNODACTYLY X MARFAN'S SYNDROME Current List of Medical Literature, 1954 MeSH for Searchers

  6. General Introduction to MeSH • Design principles of “modern” MeSH • Support for MEDLARS • Single list for indexing and cataloging • Co-ordinate indexing MeSH for Searchers

  7. General Introduction to MeSH • Print formats • MeSH before 1975 • The “public” or black and white MeSH • The searcher’s MeSH — three volumes • Annotated Alphabetic List • Tree Structures • Permuted MeSH for Searchers

  8. General Introduction to MeSH —ADENOMA— —ALGIA— —ANGIO— —ARTHR— —BIOL— —CARDI— —CELE— —CHEM— —CHEMISTRY —CUTAN— —CYTOSIS —DERM— —DYSPLASIA —DYSTROPH— —ECTOMY —EMIA —EMIC —ENCEPH— —FISH —GASTR— List of embedded roots in Permuted MeSH -- added in 1992 —GENESIS —GENIC —GRAPHY —IMMUN— —ITIS —LYSIS —METR— —ODONT— —OPHTHALM— —OSTOMY —PATH— —PENIA —PLASIA —PLASTY —PNEUM— —PULM— —SARCOMA— —SCLEROSIS —SCOPY —THERAPY —THORAX —TOMY —TROPH— —URIA —VASCUL— MeSH for Searchers

  9. General Introduction to MeSH • Electronic formats • The MeSH Browser at NLM • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html • MeSH with PubMed • MeSH as displayed on Dialog • Other electronic forms: Ovid, Knowledge Finder, etc. MeSH for Searchers

  10. General Introduction to MeSH • Documentation that may be helpful • The NLM Technical Bulletin • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/tb.html • MeSH for Searchers web page • http://library.med.cornell.edu/Library/MeSH/meshhome.html • Out-of-print resources • Online Services Reference Manual, Chapter 5 • Technical Notes and Tumor Key • MEDLARS Indexing Manual • Most are or will be on NLM web site MeSH for Searchers

  11. General Introduction to MeSH • MeSH Epochs • 1960 - 1974 • MAIN HEADINGS searched as central concept or peripheral point • PROVISIONAL HEADINGS can only be searched as peripheral points (NIM) • Textwords come from titles only • “See Under” terms cannot be searched MeSH for Searchers

  12. General Introduction to MeSH • MeSH Epochs • 1975 - 1990 • MAJOR DESCRIPTORS and MINOR DESCRIPTORS all searched as either central concepts or peripheral points • MINOR DESCRIPTORS not used in print Index Medicus • Most “see under” terms and provisionals became MINOR DESCRIPTORS • “See” cross references are searchable terms • Abstracts added to over half the citations MeSH for Searchers

  13. General Introduction to MeSH • MeSH Epochs • 1991 - present • All MINOR DESCRIPTORS elevated to MAJOR DESCRIPTOR status • All terms and cross references can be searched as either central concepts or peripheral points • PUBLICATION TYPES added to replace former “citation types” MeSH for Searchers

  14. General Introduction to MeSH • NLM terms vs. terms used by other vendors • MeSH the thesaurus vs. “mesh” the Ovid database • Major descriptor vs. “major concept” • Central concept vs. “main point” (also IM) • Minor descriptor vs. “peripheral point” (also NIM) MeSH for Searchers

  15. Basic Indexing Principles • Co-ordinate indexing • MEDLARS Indexing Manual (4:2): • “combination or coordination of two or more indexing terms, some destined for publication in Index Medicus and others destined for storage [in] the computer for future retrieval.” • Frank Bradway Rogers, Preface to 1960 MeSH: • “… the natural language, as rich as it is, is not rich enough to provide a single word or phrase adequate to the purpose.” MeSH for Searchers

  16. Basic Indexing Principles • Specificity — the supreme concept in NLM indexing • Introduction to the 1960 MeSH: • “Enter the most specific term or terms available within this system.” • Always find the most specific term to cover the concept you are searching • Prefer use of specific term ATENOLOL rather than more general term ANTIHYPERTENTIVE AGENTS • Prefer use of specific term ESCHERICHIA COLI to more general term GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA MeSH for Searchers

  17. Basic Indexing Principles • Levels of specificity • Most specific is the precoordinated term • KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION • not KIDNEY and TRANSPLANTATION • not KIDNEY/transplantation • EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE • not MEDICINE and DECISION MAKING • not CLINICAL MEDICINE/trends MeSH for Searchers

  18. Basic Indexing Principles • Levels of specificity • Next most specific is the term/subheading combination • KIDNEY/pathology • not KIDNEY and PATHOLOGY • HYPERTENSION/diet therapy • not HYPERTENSION and DIET THERAPY MeSH for Searchers

  19. Basic Indexing Principles • Levels of specificity • Least specific is the post-coordination of two or more MeSH headings • KIDNEY CALCULI and DIET • PRESBYOPIA and REFRACTION, OCULAR • PLANT EXTRACTS and PHYTOTHERAPY and GINKGO BILOBA/therapeutic use MeSH for Searchers

  20. Basic Indexing Principles • Choosing the most specific terms — an exercise • The volume of air that the lungs can take with a full, complete inspiration • A. LUNG VOLUME MEASUREMENTS and RESPIRATION • B. INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME • C. RESPIRATORY MECHANICS/analysis • D. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY MeSH for Searchers

  21. Basic Indexing Principles • Choosing the most specific terms • Gastritis caused by aspirin • A. ASPIRIN/pharmacology and GASTRITIS/ chemically induced • B. ASPIRIN/adverse effects and GASTRITIS/physiopathology • C. ASPIRIN/adverse effects and GASTRITIS/chemically induced • D. ASPIRIN/adverse effects and GASTRITIS/etiology MeSH for Searchers

  22. Basic Indexing Principles • Choosing the most specific terms • Pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid • A. THYROID DISEASES/etiology and PANCREATIC DISEASES/complications • B. THYROID NEOPLASMS/pathology and PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS/pathology • C. THYROID NEOPLASMS/secondary and CARCINOMA and PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS/complications • D. THYROID NEOPLASMS/secondary and CARCINOMA, PANCREATIC DUCTAL MeSH for Searchers

  23. Subheadings • Value of subheadings in searching • Indexers always ask themselves this question: • “What [specific] aspect of this main heading is the author writing about or discussing?” MeSH for Searchers

  24. Subheadings • How subheadings are used • Assignment of subheadings • Frequently used with MeSH terms • Rarely is a main heading used without a subheading • Up to three or more subheadings may be assigned to a single main heading • Subheadings introduce greater specificity • Subheadings can show relationships • Some common combinations of subheadings MeSH for Searchers

  25. Subheadings • Considerations in the use of subheadings • Carefully read definition in Annotated MeSH, become familiar with subheadings that are available • Recognize that there are “legal MH/sh combinations” — the category must match • Not all subheadings have been available since the beginning — watch the dates MeSH for Searchers

  26. Subheadings • Considerations in their use, cont. • Topical Subheadings by Allowable Category in Annotated MeSH • “Pre-exploded” subheadings, subheading trees • Do not confuse a /subheading with a similar MAIN HEADING — read annotation carefully • /drug therapy vs. DRUG THERAPY • /statistics vs. STATISTICS MeSH for Searchers

  27. Subheadings • Searching using subheadings • Attached directly to a main heading • Individual, central concept or peripheral point MH/sh VENOUS THROMBOSIS/DT [MH] *MH/sh COMMON COLD/VI [MJ] MeSH for Searchers

  28. Subheadings • Searching using subheadings • Attached and exploded (automatic with PubMed) EXP MH/sh HEART/EN [MH] EXP *MH/sh ANTICOAGULANTS/TU [MJ] MeSH for Searchers

  29. Subheadings • Searching using subheadings • Attached with no explosion MH/sh w/o EXP RESPIRATION/RE [MH:NOEXP] *MH/sh w/o EXP PAIN/TH [MJ:NOEXP] MeSH for Searchers

  30. Subheadings • Searching using subheadings • Multiple subheadings attached to main heading (not available on PubMed) MH/sh, sh, sh OSTEOPOROSIS/DI, TH, PA *MH/sh, sh, sh *BURN UNITS/OG, SN MeSH for Searchers

  31. Subheadings • Searching using subheadings • Individual “floating” subheadings (DIET [MH] OR FOOD [MH]) AND SU [SH] (LIVER [MH] OR KIDNEY [MH]) AND IS [SH] MeSH for Searchers

  32. Subheadings • Searching using subheadings • Floating subheading “trees” INDIANA [MH] AND OG [SH] SARIN [MJ] AND (DI [SH] OR TH [SH]) MeSH for Searchers

  33. Subheadings • When searching with floating subheadings —FALSE DROPS will be retrieved • Psychological stress caused by the surgical treatment of some other ailment—AND ALSO • Psychological stress discussed in same article as surgical treatment but with no actual relationship STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL [MH] AND SU [SH] MeSH for Searchers

  34. Subheadings • EXERCISE ON USE OFSUBHEADINGS MeSH for Searchers

  35. Check Tags • The check tag approach to indexing or why do they call them “check tags” anyway? • Each article is routinely “checked” for these concepts • With the paper indexing form, indexers made a “check mark” for these concepts MeSH for Searchers

  36. Check Tags • Considerations in the use of check tags • Most consistently applied of all types of indexing terms • “Useful redundancy” saves searchers’ time • Online check tag resource • http://library.med.cornell.edu/Library/MeSH/checktags.html Funk ME, Reid CA. Indexing consistency in MEDLINE, Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1983 Apr;71(2):176-83. MeSH for Searchers

  37. Check Tags • Some check tags will NEVER be the central concept • ANIMAL HUMAN • FEMALE MALE • CASE REPORT COMPARATIVE STUDY ENGLISH ABSTRACT • IN VITRO • SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T • SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S. SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S. MeSH for Searchers

  38. Check Tags • Special aspects of some check tags • HUMAN • MALE, FEMALE — as compared with the use of MEN, WOMEN • PREGNANCY — normal is usually IM • ANIMAL — as compared with ANIMALS MeSH for Searchers

  39. Check Tags • Special aspects, cont. • Age groups — can be central concept • Used for humans only • IM when social, political, psychological, economic aspects • INFANT, NEWBORN — special use of IM • Pre-exploded check tags: ADULT and CHILD • AGED as compared with AGED, 80 AND OVER MeSH for Searchers

  40. Check Tags • Special aspects, cont. • IN VITRO — literally “in glass” — testing done outside the body in test tubes, etc. • CASE REPORT — as compared with REVIEW OF REPORTED CASES [PT] • COMPARATIVE STUDY — uses and restrictions • Use of “support check tags” and ID numbers for grant or contract support MeSH for Searchers

  41. Check Tags • EXERCISE ON USE OFCHECK TAGS MeSH for Searchers

  42. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • There are three basic types of annotations • Indexing annotations • History and online notes (for searchers) • Cataloging practices MeSH for Searchers

  43. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • Thelma Charenthe “author” ofMeSH MeSH for Searchers

  44. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • Basic format of annotation in printed MeSH • TERM • Consider also reference(s) • Tree number(s) • Indexing annotation(s) CATALOG: cataloging practice(s) • History note(s) combined with online note(s) • Forward cross reference(s) • Backward cross reference(s) • Entry combination reference(s) MeSH for Searchers

  45. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • Additional information available in the MeSH Browser: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html • Scope note • Entry terms • Pharmacologic action terms • Allowable qualifiers • Previous indexing • CAS type 1 name • Registry number, related number(s) MeSH for Searchers

  46. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • Additional drug/chemical information in the MeSH Browser • Supplementary concept data records (new drugs and chemicals, enzymes, etc.) • Heading mapped to (MeSH term used) • Source (first MEDLINE reference noted) • Thesaurus ID • Frequency • Note(s) • Date of entry MeSH for Searchers

  47. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • Information available in annotations • Special annotations throughout for surgical procedures, inflammatory diseases, infections, infestations, neoplasms, deficiency states, etc. • Special reminders always included for check tags • Abbreviations frequently used • Web page for more details: • library.med.cornell.edu/Library/MeSH/annotations.html MeSH for Searchers

  48. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • The specialty terms • “SPEC” annotation, clearly identifies the speciality terms • “SPEC qualif”, the only subheadings allowed with specialty terms • DERMATOLOGY compared with SKIN DISEASES MeSH for Searchers

  49. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • History and online notes • Dates, xx(xx) — status of term: main heading, provisional heading, minor descriptor • NO DATE = 1966 - DATE • Changes in form, status, tree category, and mapping • Online notes reflect searching, generally “use term A to search term B 19xx-xx” or “search term C 1966-xx” • Online and history notes being combined MeSH for Searchers

  50. Interpreting MeSH Annotations • Searching the “backfiles” • Usually search the entire MEDLINE database at once: 1966 - date • MeSH terms have changed in past 35 years • Note date the term became available, both main heading and subheading • Read online and history notes carefully • Remember the MeSH epochs MeSH for Searchers