Rant Quiz: Pages 202-203 • What is a Blockade? • In June 1807, this US naval frigate was fired upon off the coast of Virginia by a British warship. • Which US President convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807? • This was the name of young Congressmen from the South and West that wanted war with Great Britain. • Who was the Shawnee Indian Chief who helped organize western tribes against American expansion?
Foreign Policy Problems • Jefferson, and his successor James Madison, faced the same foreign policy problem as Washington and Adams. War between Great Britain and France • Both countries began blockades of important ports in an effort to stop trade between their enemy and the rest of the world. French = Continental System GB = Orders in Council • By 1806, neutral American ships are caught in the middle. French = 500 US ships GB = 1,000 US ships
The Chesapeake Incident • In 1807, a US warship, the USS Chesapeake, was attacked by the HMS Leopard off the coast of Norfolk, VA. • The US captain refused to allow the British to board the ship looking for British deserters. • After a very brief battle, - 3 Americans dead, 18 wounded - 4 men impressed - USS Chesapeake is crippled
Jefferson’s response • Although the US was clearly attacked, there is not enough support in 1807 to declare war. • Jefferson is able to have Congress pass the Embargo Act of 1807 in an effort to safeguard American sailors. • An Embargo is a “ban on exporting products to other countries.” • Jefferson believed that an embargo would hurt the British so badly that they would be forced to respect our neutrality. • Was it Effective? Nope! It hurts the US more. In 1809, the Embargo Act is repealed.
The situation changes . . . • Jefferson does not run for a third term and his Secretary of State, James Madison, wins the Election of 1808. Madison inherits the foreign policy problem. • Madison announces the Non-Intercourse Act in 1809 which stops trade with GB and France only. • 1810 – Young politicians from Southern and Western States begin to take over leadership in Congress. John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KY) • 1811 – Shawnee Confederacy begin to organize resistance to US expansion in the Indiana Territory. Tecumseh versus William Henry Harrison
The War of 1812 begins This war will be full of “bad timing.” • 1811 – Congress adds “Macon’s Bill no. 2” to the Non-Intercourse Act. This amendment states that whichever country France or Great Britain ends its blockade of US ships first – We will re-open trade with them and not the other one. • France agrees – British enraged and threatened force. • June 18th Congress declares war on GB (no Federalists vote ‘yes’) • June 23rd GB repeals Order in Council and agree to stop impressments.