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CHAPTER 18. THE GREAT DEPRESSION BEGINS (1929 - 1932). 18.1 – THE CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION see your graphic organizer for this section. 18.2 – LIFE DURING THE DEPRESSION. GD led to massive loss of jobs and property Worsened during Hoover’s administration

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  2. 18.1 – THE CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSIONsee your graphic organizer for this section

  3. 18.2 – LIFE DURING THE DEPRESSION • GD led to massive loss of jobs and property • Worsened during Hoover’s administration (ex. 1932 – 30,000 companies go out of business) • People turn to bread lines, soup kitchens, YMCAs… • People lost homes and shantytowns popped up (why did they call them Hoovervilles?) • People wandered from place to place looking for work, food, shelter….(hobos)

  4. 18.2 – THE DUST BOWL (read pp. 638-639) • Dust Bowl refers to the “fruitless” land/fields • Wind storms could be deadly, leading to blackening skies, suffocation, destruction of existing crops… • Many who lost their farms headed to California for work • Okies • DB was a result of several things: • Homesteading • Drop in crop prices • Draught hitting the Great Plains

  5. 18.2 – ENTERTAINMENT • People turned to entertainment as an escape from the worries/stresses of the GD • Movies, radio plays, comic books, superhero (Superman and Batman in the late ’30s)

  6. HOLLYWOOD • Millions attended movies • Comedies provided escape • Stars such as Jimmy Stewart, Shirley Temple and Groucho Marx • King Kong (1933) • Wizard of Oz (1939) • Gone with the Wind (1939) • Walt Disney emerges in late ‘20s • Mickey Mouse (1928) • Snow White (1937) – first feature length animated film

  7. RADIO • Radio provided daily entertainment • sort of like TV today? • Creates common culture, shared experiences… • Comedians such as Jack Benny and George Burns • Superheroes included the Lone Ranger and the Green Hornet • Emergence of soap operas (Guiding Light) • why were they called soap operas? George Burns

  8. LITERATURE & ART • Artists/authors portrayed the life surrounding them • John Steinbeck • Grapes of Wrath focuses on Okies and Dust Bowl • William Faulkner • The Sound and the Fury (used stream of consciousness…what is that?) • Images were becoming more influential, photographers captured daily life and struggles • Life – introduced in 1936 by Henry Luce • Painters such as Grant Wood depicted traditional American values • American Gothic

  9. 18.3 – HOOVER RESPONDS TO THE DEPRESSION • HH was optimistic things would get better soon after the Crash • Believed gov’t had a role but did not favor “direct” aid to indivduals • Faith in “rugged individualism” • Fear of policies in Europe after WWI • Feared deficit spending (what is this?) Herbert Hoover

  10. 18.3 – HOOVER RESPONDS TO THE DEPRESSION • Held conferences w/ leaders of business, banks, RRs, labor… • Increased funding for public works projects • Did not create enough jobs • See graphic organizer for specific policies • Although Hoover failed to pull the country out of the depression he was actually a very “active” president; did a lot to expand the role of the Federal gov’t, especially for that time

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