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Process Safety Management

Process Safety Management

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Process Safety Management

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Process Safety Management

  2. Session Objectives • You will be able to: • Identify the dangers of highly hazardous chemicals in your facility • Safely follow standard operating procedures • Avoid or correct hazards and unsafe conditions • Respond to emergencies

  3. Dangers of Highly Hazardous Chemicals • Millions of people live near chemical plants in the United States • Bhopal, India—1984 • Accidental releases can cause severe injury and death • Poisoning • Asphyxiation • Internal or external burns

  4. Dangers of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (cont.) • 6,500 residents evacuated after ammonia release • Propane gas-fueled explosion caused by unsafe conditions and inadequate employee training Image Credit: Chemical Safety Board (CSB)

  5. Highly Hazardous Chemicals • Toxic • Reactive • Flammable • Explosive

  6. Process Safety Management Overview • Written safety information • Written workplace hazard assessment • Consultation with operators • A system to respond to findings • Periodic review of assessments and response • Written operating procedures • Safety training and operating information

  7. Process Safety Management Overview (cont.) • Information and training for contractors • Emergency response training • A quality assurance program • Maintenance system • Pre-startup safety reviews • Documentation and verification of change • Incident investigation and corrective action

  8. Identify Hazards—The MSDS • Toxicity • Permissible exposure limit • Physical data • Reactivity • Corrosivity • Thermal and chemical stability • Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of materials

  9. Identify Hazards— Equipment • Sparks or electrical discharge from old or poorly maintained equipment • Leaks or spills caused by: • Pump or compressor failures • Loose valve connections • Inadequate containment

  10. PSM and Chemical Hazards—Any Questions? • Any questions about the process safety management program? • Any questions about the hazards or dangers of chemicals? • Any questions about hazards from equipment?

  11. Chemical Exposure Precautions • Administrative controls • Engineering controls

  12. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Always wear PPE appropriate to the task • Ensure a good fit • Inspect PPE before use • Keep it clean • Report defective equipment to your supervisor • Never wear defective PPE

  13. Operating Phases • Initial start-up • Normal operations • Maintenance • Temporary operations • Normal shutdown • Emergency shutdown • Restart • Site security

  14. Initial Start-Up • Check storage containers • Conduct pressure test and leak check • Inspect equipment Image Credit: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

  15. Normal Operations— Operating Limits • Capacity • Pressure • Temperature • Weather conditions

  16. Normal Operations— Loading and Unloading • Notify management of suspicious shipment • Verify tank trucks are grounded • Inspect the tank • Inspect all equipment before loading • Verify container is safe for filling • Verify truck electrical systems are off

  17. Normal Operations— Loading and Unloading (cont.) • Use wheel chocks • Check the compatibility of mixed loads • Check the weight distribution of loads • Verify that the cargo is properly secured • Check the type, number, and stacking arrangement of load • Conduct a walk-around inspection of transport vehicles

  18. Normal Operations— Segregation and Storage • Never store incompatible chemicals together • Segregate chemicals by hazard class • Store flammable solvents in a flammable storage cabinet • Store acids in their own storage cabinet • Keep oxidizers away from organic materials • Keep acids away from bases • Keep cyanides and sulfides away from acids

  19. Maintenance—General Equipment • Wear personal protective equipment • Replace or repair defective or damaged power and hand tools • Repair or replace damaged equipment (e.g., meters, cathodic protection systems) showing signs of: • Leaks • Corrosion • Low pressure

  20. Maintenance—Containers, Tanks, Foundations • Inspect containers and tanks and repair: • Leaks • Corrosion • Check the condition of the foundation • Replace footings • Repair corrosion at container and masonry contact area Image Credit: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL)

  21. Maintenance—Connectors and Fittings • Maintain and repair container connections • Replace faulty flow and backflow check valves • Abrasions or cuts on hoses • Leaks • Maintain and repair tank fittings • Ensure that connectors, plugs, caps, and gaskets are in good condition

  22. Maintenance—Gauges and Pressure Valves • Make sure equipment is shut down • Repair or replace gauges • Repair or replace pressure relief valves • Ensure that emergency shut-off valves are in good condition

  23. Maintenance—Pumps and Compressors • Ensure that the motor is operating according to manufacturer’s specs • Check all alignments to specification • Ensure that oil systems are properly maintained on schedule • Check all connections and terminals for tightness and contact • Monitor fluid flow • Tighten all electrical connections, measure voltage

  24. Maintenance—Hoses • Ensure that hoses are operating at or below the rated working pressure • Ensure that the overfill alarm and prevention device is functioning properly • Protect hoses from severe end loads • Check hoses for loose covers, kinks, or soft spots • Replace hoses according to manufacturer’s specifications

  25. Maintenance—Electrical Equipment • Stop using and report: • Broken or missing equipment covers • Damaged tools • Damaged cords • Any other damaged equipment

  26. Maintenance—Remove Combustible Materials • Keep combustibles at least 10 feet away from containers • Weeds • Grass • Rags • Paper • Wood

  27. Any Questions? • Any questions about start up, normal operations, and any of the maintenance procedures?

  28. Temporary Operations • Conduct a pre-startup check • Segregate incompatible containers

  29. Normal Shutdown Procedures • Check pressure relief systems

  30. Emergency Shutdown • Situations that trigger an emergency shutdown include: • Fire • Leak • Explosion • Workplace violence

  31. Emergency Shutdown Procedure • Perform shutdown procedures only if not threatening to life or injury • Evacuate the area • Immediately report your shutdown actions

  32. Restart • Examine pressure vessels and storage tanks • Examine insulation systems for piping, vessels, and tanks • Examine drainage systems • Examine electrical motors and drives • Check valve positions

  33. Restart (cont.) • Examine all electrical equipment and wiring systems • Make sure all warning systems are operational • Check the integrity of all fire detection and suppression systems • Ensure that emergency response equipment and systems are operational

  34. Site Security • Report • Unlocked doors, gates, and storage areas • Suspicious packages • Suspicious activity • Don’t talk to outsiders about the facility • Display your ID badge on company premises • Secure hazardous materials

  35. Site Security (cont.) • Secure all valves and other fixtures when you are finished using them • Verify the identity of cargo carriers and drivers • Secure all rail, truck, and barge containers • Verify all paperwork • Handle pickups and deliveries only by appointment with known vendors

  36. Operating Procedures— Any Questions? Any questions about: • Procedures for safely handling chemicals or operating a chemical process? • Temporary operations? • Shutdown and restart procedures? • Site security?

  37. Consequences of Deviations • Excess pressure— accidental releases, leaks, fires, and explosions • Container leaks— poisoning, asphyxiation, burns, fires, and explosions

  38. Consequences of Deviations (cont.) • Damaged or faulty equipment—accidental leaks, fires, and explosions • Change in the process—accidental releases, leaks, fires, and explosions Image Credit: Chemical Safety Board (CSB)

  39. Emergency Response— Contacts • Fire department • Police department • Ambulance • Medical clinic or hospital • Emergency coordinator

  40. Respond to Chemical Spills • Evacuate the area • Notify a supervisor or the emergency response team • Remove ignition sources if safe to do so

  41. Evacuation Preparedness • Keep fire exits clear • Participate in drills and provide feedback • Become familiar with evacuation coordinators and headcount personnel

  42. Evacuation Procedures • Recognize the evacuation signal and listen for instructions • Shut down equipment using the emergency stop • Go directly to the nearest safe exit • Proceed to the assembly area

  43. Rescue and Medical Treatment • Leave rescue work to trained professionals • Designated first-aid workers perform first aid • Follow medical emergency procedures

  44. Emergency Response— Any Questions? • Any questions about responding to emergencies?

  45. Management of Change • Technical basis for the proposed change • Impact of the change on safety and health • Modifications of the operating procedures • Necessary time period for the change • Authorization requirements for the change

  46. Hot Work Permit • Hot work operations can cause catastrophic accidents • A hot work permit is required for all hot work operations

  47. Lockout/Tagout • Qualified persons only • Prevent machinery or equipment from being turned on • Prevent a part of machinery or equipment from moving • Provide means of warning (tag)

  48. Permit-Required Confined Space • Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere • Contains the potential for engulfment • Internal configuration that can trap or asphyxiate entrant • “Any other serious safety or health hazards”

  49. Incident Investigation Reports • Date of incident • Date investigation began • Description of the incident • Factors contributing to the incident • Recommendations resulting from the investigation

  50. Key Points to Remember • Chemical process accidents can cause severe injury, death, and damage to property and the environment • Read MSDSs for chemicals • Follow operating and maintenance procedures without deviation • Always watch for potential unsafe conditions • Leaks, corrosion, faulty equipment, combustibles near chemical processes