FUNDAMENTALS OFCRIME ANALYSIS Carol McCoy Lenexa Police Department
4 Types of Analysis(The soap opera theory . . .) • Crime (or: Who’s doing what TO whom . . .) • Intelligence (or: Who’s doing what WITH whom . . .) • Operations (or: Who’s using what where . . .) • Investigations (or: Let’s find out who’s doing what to whom, where, why, and with what . . . . .)
What Is Crime Analysis, anyway? A systematic process of collecting, categorizing, analyzing, and disseminating timely, accurate, and useful information that describes crime patterns, crime trends, and potential suspects.
What Is Intelligence Analysis? The systematic collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and dissemination of information on criminals, especially related to their association and their identification with criminal activity of an organized nature.
What is Operations Analysis? The study of police service delivery problems, undertaken to provide commanders and managers with a scientific basis for decisions and/or actions aimed at improving operations or deployment of resources.
What is Investigative Analysis? A process identifying the personality and behavioral characteristics of an offender based on crimes her/she has committed. (Profiling)
Crime Pattern - The occurrence of similar offenses in a defined geographic area, usually defined by administrative boundaries. Crime Series - A crime pattern where there is reason to believe the same person(s) committed the crimes. Crime Trend - A recognizable general tendency regarding recurring patterns of crime which is revealed over a period of time. A trend may involve any one of the crime pattern factors or any combination of the factors.
Types of Crime Analysis • Administrative • Strategic • Tactical
Administrative Crime Analysis is. . . . . .used for policy development and resource justification. • Cost-effectiveness studies • Program evaluations • Budget justifications
Strategic Crime Analysis is . . . . . . used for identifying problems and potential approaches for dealing with them. • Exception Reports - identifies unusual levels of activity in an area over a month-to-month or annual time period. • Crime Trend Forecasts - projects future trends in various types of crimes based on past experience. • Resource Allocation Proposals - suggests shifts of resource(s) to meet new crime related service demands. • Situational Analysis - provides information about crime problems and the environment in which they are occurring. Often referred to as Beat Profiling.
Tactical Crime Analysis is . . . . . . used to take action designed to address specific types of crimes and offenders.
Strategy • CAU implementation committee • Site visits to operational CAUs • Planning tools
Logistical Issues • Organizational placement • Planning/Research? • CEO’s office? • Investigations? • Patrol?
Physical location of CAU • Maximize officer contact. • Close to information sources. • Roll call rooms have been used in some jurisdictions. • Consider amount of space, equipment, and supplies needed.
Staffing • How many • Clerical and support needs • Volunteers • CAU hours and the BIG question . . . . .
OR SWORN? CIVILIAN?
Computer Stuff • Hardware • PC • Color printer • Plotter • Scanner • Software • Statistical • RDBS • Word Processing • GIS • Crime Analysis
Training Alpha Group FBI IACP IACA ANACAPA Sciences, Inc. Cal. State U., Fullerton Cal. State U., San Bernardino
How Is Crime Analysis Done? • Collect the data • Collate the data • Analyze the data • DISSEMINATE the data! • Feedback/evaluation
Data Collection Gathering “crime specific” elements of information about crime problems, primarily from • Offense reports • Arrest reports • Field interviews
Data Collection Data must be: • Standardized • Usable • Good quality • Format facilitating collection
Crime Reports • Geographic factors • Time factors • Victim/target descriptors • Property loss descriptors • Physical evidence descriptors • Solvability factors • Specific MO factors
FI Reports • Geographic factors • Time factors • Subject descriptors • Subject vehicle descriptors • Names of associates w/subject • Reason(s) for FI
Arrest Reports • Geographic factors • Time factors • Victim/target descriptors • Recovered property descriptors • Physical evidence descriptors • Specific MO factors • Suspect descriptors • Suspect vehicle descriptors
Data Collation(aka Target Crimes) Burglary Robbery Auto theft Theft Fraud Sex crimes Agg. Assaults Homicide
Planning Considerations • How many/what type of target crimes • Frequent enough to produce recognizable patterns • Does CAU have personnel/time necessary to build/maintain files • Specific enough to be categorized • Designed to facilitate retrieval • Relationships established
Analysis Process . .looking for similarities and related facts. Two major types: • Geographic concentration • Specific/recurring MO patterns
Analysis Process(con’t) • Analysis tools • Maps • Tally sheets • Time-series charts/crime calendars • Matrices • Simple math tests
Data Search Techniques Residential Burglaries • Geographic - 1 • Time - 2 • Property loss type - 2 • Target type - 2 • Physical evidence - 2 • Specific M.O. - 2 • Suspect vehicle - 3 • Suspect - 3
Data Search Techniques Commercial Burglaries • Geographic - 1 • Specific M.O. - 1 • Target - 1 • Property loss type - 2 • Physical evidence - 2 • Time - 3 • Suspect vehicle - 3 • Suspect - 3
Data Search Techniques Strong-Arm Robberies • Geographic - 1 • Time - 1 • Victim - 1 • Property loss - 2 • Physical evidence - 2 • Specific M.O. - 2 • Suspect - 3 • Suspect vehicle - 3
Information Dissemination • Products • Distribution • Product Development
Products • Daily Bulletins • Information summaries • Field Interview summaries • Crime pattern alert • Wanted persons • Suspect/known offender bulletins
Product Development • Break down the data - NO LISTS! • Attractive product, good graphics • Quality over quantity • Regular feedback from users
Distribution • CAU conducted briefings • Roll call • Video tapes • Moving marquee in squad room • Bulletin board • Officer notebooks • Newspaper format
Evaluation and Feedback • Mechanisms • Trash can surveys • User group • User survey • Keep record or results generated from products • Keep log of number of special requests
Evaluation and Feedback(con’t) • Issues • Timeliness • Credibility of the unit • Accessibility to users • Usefulness of products
Departmental Support • Executive level support • Field level support