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Developing Potentials for Learning: Evidence, assessment, and progress

Developing Potentials for Learning: Evidence, assessment, and progress

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Developing Potentials for Learning: Evidence, assessment, and progress

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  1. Developing Potentials for Learning:Evidence, assessment, and progress John Hattie Visible Learning Lab University of Auckland New Zealand EARLI 2007

  2. Three parts to the story • To identify major influences on achievement (using 700+ meta-analyses) • To outline an assessment model based on these influences • To demonstrate the power and joy of Educational Psychology

  3. Influences on Achievement ? 0 Decreased Zero Enhanced

  4. Reducing Class Size on Achievement? What is the effect of reducing class size Hundreds of evaluations of reducing class size …. 0 Decreased Zero Enhanced

  5. Effect on Achievement over time? Reducing Class Size .20 1.0 0 Decreased Enhanced Zero

  6. The typical influence on achievement So what is the typical effect across • 750+ meta-analysis • 50,000 studies, and • 200+ million students

  7. Effect on Achievement over time? Typical Effect Size 1.0 0 .20 .40 Decreased Zero Enhanced

  8. Distribution of effects

  9. Influences on Achievement .40 .30 .50 .60 .15 Typical Teacher Effects .70 .80 Developmental Effects ZONE OF DESIRED EFFECTS 0 .90 REVERSE 1.0

  10. Rank these 11 effects: • Reducing disruptive behavior in the class • Feedback • Acceleration of gifted students • Reading Recovery • Integrated curriculum programs • Homework • Individualized instruction • Ability grouping • Open vs. traditional classes • Retention (holding back a year) • Shifting schools (from 1 = highest effect to 11 = lowest effect)

  11. Rank these 11 effects: Answers • Reducing disruptive behavior in the class .86 • Feedback .72 • Acceleration of gifted students .60 • Reading Recovery .50 • Integrated curriculum programs .40 • Homework .30 • Individualized instruction .20 • Ability grouping .10 • Open vs. traditional classes .00 • Retention (hold back a year) -.16 • Shifting schools -.34

  12. Major domains of interest • Curricula • Home • School • Student • Teacher • Teaching

  13. The Disasters ...

  14. The Well belows...

  15. Not Worth it yet ...

  16. Typical “average teacher” territory ...

  17. Close to average

  18. Average …

  19. Getting there …

  20. Let’s have them ....

  21. Exciting ….

  22. The Winners ...

  23. Various Influences

  24. Percentage of Achievement Variance Teachers Students Home Peers Schools Principal Identifying what matters

  25. Visible teaching & Visible learning • What some teachers do! • In active, calculated and meaningful ways • Providing multiple opportunities & alternatives • Teaching learning strategies • Around surface and deep learning • That leads to students constructing learning

  26. Visible Teaching – Visible Learning

  27. Teachers • Clear learning intentions • Challenging success criteria • Range of learning strategies • Know when students are not progressing • Providing feedback • Visibly learns themselves

  28. Students … • Understand learning intentions • Are challenged by success criteria • Develop a range of learning strategies • Know when they are not progressing • Seek feedback • Visibly teach themselves

  29. The Contrast • An active teacher, passionate for their subject and for learning, a change agent OR • A facilitative, inquiry or discovery based provider of engaging activities

  30. Activator or Facilitator ?

  31. Activator or Facilitator ?

  32. Teaching or Working Conditions?

  33. An emphasis on learning strategies NS NE ES Creativity Programs 658 814 .70 Teaching student self-verbalization 92 1061 .67 Meta-cognition strategies 43 123 .67 Problem solving teaching 221 719 .61 Study skills 656 2446 .59 Concept mapping 91 105 .52 Motivation on learning 322 979 .48

  34. Message for Learning • Balance of surface, deep, & constructed knowing • Teachers preach deep, students see surface! • Learning strategies • To reduce cognitive load • To use when stuck (welcome error!) • Requires deliberative practice • Builds expectations of “can do” • Thrives on challenge • Requires feedback

  35. Self Regulation • Need surface and deep to maximize meta-cognition • Involves questioning our constructions of knowledge & knowing • Requires highly structured or direct teaching • Is the heart of Visible learning and Visible teaching

  36. Some worrying details

  37. Assessment and Feedback

  38. Assessment…

  39. Teaching/Teachers needs to be evidence based • Whether their teaching methods have been successful or not • Whether their learning intentions are worthwhile & challenging • Whether students are attaining their desired success criteria • Which students have learnt or not learnt • Where teachers can capitalize on student strengths & minimize gaps • Where students are on the learning ladder • Whether they have a shared conception of progress • What is optimal to teach next Whenever we test in classes it is primarily to help teachers know:

  40. Priority to maximize FEEDBACK to THE TEACHER • Feedback is information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self/experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding.

  41. Purpose of feedback • provide alternative strategies to understand material • increase effort, motivation or engagement • confirm that the responses are correct or incorrect • indicate that more information is available or needed • point to directions that could be pursued • to restructure understandings

  42. Feedback is evidence about: • Where am I going? • How am I going? • Where to next?

  43. Enhancing Learning Gap How ??? Levels

  44. Summary of effect-sizes relating to types of feedback (adapted from Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Moderator No. ES Correct feedback ‘Tis correct 114 .43 ‘Tis incorrect 197 .25

  45. Summary of effect-sizes relating to types of feedback (adapted from Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Moderator No. ES Correct feedback ‘Tis correct 114 .43 ‘Tis incorrect 197 .25 FB about changes from previous trials Yes 50 .55 No 380 .28

  46. Summary of effect-sizes relating to types of feedback (adapted from Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Moderator No. ES Correct feedback ‘Tis correct114 .43 ‘Tis incorrect 197 .25 FB about changes from Yes 50 .55 previous trials No 380 .28 FB designed to Yes 49 -.14 discourage student No 388 .33

  47. Summary of effect-sizes relating to types of feedback (adapted from Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Moderator No. ES Correct feedback ‘Tis correct 114 .43 ‘Tis incorrect 197 .25 FB about changes from Yes 50 .55 previous trials No 380 .28 FB designed to discourage Yes 49 -.14 the student No 388 .33 Praise FB Yes 80 .09 No 358 .34

  48. Summary of effect-sizes relating to types of feedback (adapted from Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Moderator No. ES Correct feedback ‘Tis correct 114 .43 ‘Tis incorrect 197 .25 FT about changes from previous trials Yes 50 .55 No 380 .28 FT designed to discourage the student Yes 49 -.14 No 388 .33 Praise FT Yes 80 .09 No 358 .34 No. of times FT was Lots 97 .32 provided Little 171 .39

  49. Summary of effect-sizes relating to types of feedback (adapted from Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Moderator No. ES Correct feedback ‘Tis correct 114 .43 ‘Tis incorrect 197 .25 FB about changes from previous trials Yes 50 .55 No 380 .28 FB designed to discourage the student Yes 49 -.14 No 388 .33 Praise FB Yes 80 .09 No 358 .34 No. of times FB was provided Lots 97 .32 Little 171 .39 Goal setting Difficult goals 37 .51 Easy, do your best goals 373 .30

  50. Thus … • Provide correct feedback .43 • About previous attempts .55 • Related to more difficult goals .51 • That does not discourage .33 • or threaten their self-esteem .47