Elspeth, Lily, Olivia, Alma, Adele, Mollie, Millie, Martha, Lizzie, Eden (Scotland) Phillip, Alex (Germany) Eszter (Hungary) Jóhanna (Iceland) Karoline, Regine (Norway) Lousie, Sander (Belgium)
If the carbon dioxide emission goes heavily up, what will the world look like? The ice in Greenland melts, the result is that the sea level will rise If we go on with the CO2 emissions the average temperature will rise 4 °C The port cities will be flooded We must build higher dams We have to face heavy rainfall and heat waves
Ocean The Ocean is getting warmer and is killing off more fish, meaning that the countries that normally sell fish to other countries are loosing out on money. Sea – level rise, flood, droughts, wildfires and extreme storms destroys many houses, roads, bridges, train tracks, airport runways, power lines, dams, and sea walls. All of these examples need lots of money to repair them again. Societies can find ways to prepare for this and cope with some climate change and impacts. Studies show that the rebuilding after disasters strike is likely to prove even more costly than the having already precautions in place.
Income Low Paid – they are more vulnerable to the temperature changes, even though they have contributed less to climate change and they cannot afford to change their houses to the different effects. The Elderly – it is likely that there will be an increased mortality with this group in relation to the temperature changes.
Food production Food supplies can be greatly affected by a single spell of extreme of flooding or drought Stanford University found that productions of maize and wheat would be 5% higher if it were not for climate change Societies will need to adapt hugely to cope with growing change of the climate all over the world if we are to continue to produce enough food to feed the population.
Population Population growth is a major contributor to global warming – more humans means more use of “fossil fuels” which produce carbon dioxide More people means more demand for oil, gas, coal and other fuels mined or drilled from below the Earth’s surface therefore prices will rise and CO2 contents will also. According to the Worldwatch Institute “reversing the deforestation of Earth, stabilizing water tables, and protecting plant and animal diversity, much more manageable. If we cannot stabilize climate and we cannot stabilize population, there is not an ecosystem on Earth that we can save.”
Rising sea level The rising temperature and global warming are one of the main contributing factors causing the ice caps to melt. Afull melting of the polar ice caps would imply a rise of about 70-80 meters. Because of the increase of water there will be and has been great disruption caused from rising sea level in the world due to global warming For example places that will be affected by rising sea levels and cause flooding are : London, Bangkok and New York, Shanghai and Mumbai
Belgium In Belgium, over the course of the 20th century, there were very marked and quite severe increases in seasonal and annual temperatures (in the order of 1°C) during two periods, firstly during the first half of the 20th century and then in the 1980s The frequency of cold spells reduced significantly in the early 1970s. The general increase in minimal temperatures during the 20th century also explains why the longest annual period without frost has increased Between 1833, when rainfall records began, and the end of the 20th century, the Brussels region has seen an increase of roughly 7% in annual rainfall
Hungary The annual precipitation amount significantly decreased in the 20th century. It is most significant during spring when the sum of precipitation is only 75% of the sum in the beginning of the 20th century. The summer precipitation amount did not change in the past 100 years. The autumn and winter precipitation decrease is 12-14%. The winter precipitation is the lowest in comparison to the other seasons. The number of frosty days is expected to decrease in 2040, compared with 1961-1990, in all parts of the country, by 12-15 days. The areas at higher altitudes are expected to show a larger reduction, while the southern areas are expected to show a smaller change. The number of frosty days shows a definite reduction which will decrease the heat consumption due to a higher average temperature and a shorter heating period. The number of days with heat alert shows an increasing tendency in 2040, compared with 1961-1990. The largest temperature increase is expected in summer, and the smallest increase in spring. The expected summer warming of Hungary in 2071- 2100 compared with 1961-1990 ranges from 4.5-5.1°C (scenario A2) and 3.7-4.2°C (scenario B2). In case of spring, the expected temperature increase inside Hungary is 2.9-3.2°C (scenario A2) and 2.4-2.7°C (scenario B2) (6).
Norway For the period 1900-2008 as a whole, the annual mean temperature in Norway has increased by about 0.9°C The annual precipitation has increased in Norway during 1900-2008 Snow cover has decreased in the northern hemisphere for the past 50 years Snowfall depends strongly on temperature and precipitation. In Norway, these have increased during winter in the past few decades. The Norwegian coastal glaciers, which were expanding and gaining mass due to increased snowfall in winter up to the end of the 1990s, are also now retreating, as a result of less winter precipitation and more summer melting . Nearly all the smaller Norwegian glaciers are likely to disappear and overall glacier area as well as volume may be reduced by about one third by 2100
Iceland Iceland enjoys a warmer climate than its northerly location would indicate because a part of the Gulf Stream flows around the southern and western coasts of the country. Reykjavik has a cool climate; with annual temperatures similar to those of Toronto or New York. However, it does still get cold in Reykjavik. In addition, the result of mixing the warm, moist Atlantic air with the cold, dry Arctic air produces a weather pattern that is constantly changing. The annual temperature of Reykjavik is 5°C, with the average January temperature being -0.4°C and July 11.2°C. The temperature records for Reykjavík are 24.8°C (76.6°F) on August 11, 2004 and -24.5°C (-12.1°F) on January 21, 1918. In the 1920s there was a period of rapid warming, similar to what is observed in global averages, but in Iceland the temperature change was greater and more abrupt. Since the 1980's, Iceland has experienced considerable warming, and early in the 21st century temperatures reached values comparable to those observed in the 1930s.
Germany The annual average temperature increased by ca. 0.8 to 1.0ºC between 1900 and 2000. After a cooling trend up to the 1970s we now observe a continuous and rapid temperature increase that still continues today . The intensity and frequency of the occurrence of extreme rainfall events have increased especially during the last forty years of the 20th century. In general, this trend is more pronounced in the winter than in the summer . The probability of occurrence of an extremely hot summer, such as in the year 2003, increased in the course of the second half of the 20th century.
Scotland The Gulf Stream has a warming effect on the UK, especially bringing mild winters for it latitude. From 1901 to 1999, annual mean CET temperatures showed a warming of +0.6°C over this period. The warming has been greatest from mid-summer to late autumn. Temperatures in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have risen by about 0.7–0.8ºC since about 1980. Scotland is on average 20% wetter then it was in 1961
Estonia Estonia lies in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate. Local climatic differences are due, above all, to the neighbouring Baltic Sea, which warms up the coastal zone in winter and has a cooling effect, especially in spring. The most intensive warming to date has taken place in March, April, and May, with a gradient of 1.5ºC per 100 years Since 1966 precipitation series in Estonia have been massive. A significant increase in precipitation has occurred in winter period (29%). During the period 1961–2004 the winter seasonal precipitation increased over 45 mm.
Fuel Economy • Highway vehicles release about 1.5 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere each year. • You an reduce them by: • Choosing a car with better gas mileage • Getting the best fuel economy out of your car • Using a low-carbon fuel such as ethanol or CNG • Walking, biking or taking public transport more often • Combining trips when possible
Clean Energy • Two thirds of all energy going into the UK’s power stations is lost as waste heat energy. Up the chimney and cooling towers. If we captured this heat it would be enough of it to heat every building and business in the UK. • To capture this energy we would need to start using smaller plants, however, by making these changes we could double the efficiency of our power stations, slash our carbon emissions and reduce our reliance on foreign gas.
In The Home Domestic usage accounts for 15% of the UK’s carbon emissions. There are many simple solutions that can do such as switching to energy efficient bulbs and fitting insulation in the loft, etc. But we can go further by decentralising our energy systems. By installing a small scale solar and wind generators we can make our own power and even sell our excess energy made top neighbours etc.
Industry In 2005 the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was set up to tackle emissions from industry, which accounts for almost a quarter of the UK’s carbon emissions. The ETS requires companies to either reduce their emissions or buy carbon credits from other companies that have not exceeded their targets.
Top Ten Small Solutions Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning Change Light Bulbs to Fluorescent Drive Less and Drive Smart Buy Energy-Efficient Products Use Less Hot Water Use the “OFF” Button Plant a Tree Manage Your Utilities Encourage Others to Conserve http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OqVyRa1iuMc
In 50 years… “It’s virtually certain that human activities are responsible for the changes in climate that we’ve been seeing over the past 50 years.”
Climate in 50 years time… Persistent emissions of greenhouse gases will lead to increasing levels of climate change; this can include atmospheric warming, rising acidity levels in the ocean, rising sea levels, and changing precipitation patterns. The extent of future climate change is dependent on what we do now to reduce global warming. The more we create, the larger the changes will be.
Future Temperature Changes By 2100, global temperature is expected to warm at a rate at least twice as fast as it has during the last 100 years.
Future Predictions For every 2°F of warming, a 25% decrease in the amount of Arctic sea ice in September alone is projected. Estimates of future sea level rise vary for different regions, but global sea level for the next century is expected to rise at a greater rate than during the past 50 years. Glaciers are expected to continue to decrease in size. The rate of melting is expected to continue to increase, which will contribute to sea level rise. As heat waves increase, droughts and floods will become more common, diseases like malaria may spread to Britain and climate change refugees from across the world are likely to head to the country.
According to a new OECD report, the balance of economic power is expected to shift dramatically over the next half century, with fast-growing emerging-market economies accounting for an ever-increasing share of global output. Divergent long-term growth patterns lead to radical shifts in the relative size of economies. The United States is expected to cede its place as the world's largest economy to China, as early as 2016. India’s GDP is also expected to pass that of the United States over the long term. Combined, the two Asian giants will soon surpass the collective economy of the G7 nations. Fast-ageing economic heavyweights, such as Japan and the euro area, will gradually lose ground on the global GDP table to countries with a younger population.
References http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/future.html http://www.50yearforecast.org/ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/6236690/Met-Office-catastrophic-climate-change-could-happen-with-50-years.html http://www.climateadaptation.eu/ http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/climate/solutions http://environment.about.com/od/globalwarming/tp/globalwarmtips.htm http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/climate.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_climate_change_on_humans http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/sep/19/climate-change-affect-food-production http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=population-growth-climate-change http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/impacts/sea_level_rise/