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What makes us tick?

What makes us tick?

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What makes us tick?

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  1. What makes us tick? Gert Jan Hofstede

  2. Unit of human life is groups! Desert island • 30 good people? • 30 bad people? • Mix? • Moral emotions; Corruption or correction

  3. Perfect group → organism • Cell • Micro-organelles are symbiosis partners • Bees • No jealousy, equal reproduction • Chickens • Experiment: best individual vs best group • Body • Cancer = business success

  4. Groups are successful (so far…) • Eukaryotes • Multicellular organisms • Especially social insects • Mammals • Humans • Can you construct a house? • Can you produce your own food? • Complex societies …so now the society is also a unit of evolution

  5. Humans are special They evolved for • Adaptability (clothes, fire) • Collaboration • Empathy • Laughter, play • Language: gossip • Eye pupil • Prolonged youth

  6. Personality (OCEAN) Personality OCEAN Personality OCEAN drives characteristic adaptations characteristic adaptations Life story learning goals  roles in rituals stream of life   goals goals learning characteristic institutions characteristic institutions Cul- tural his- tory Story of a society Per- sonal bio- graphy drives Culture (CHAOS) Culture IDCUL Human evolution: Personality – culture mutual homeostasis system Evolutionary Bases ( SAND) goals Sources: McCrae FFM, Hofstede 5D

  7. Golden Rule for groups • Do to others as you would be done unto • Kant: categorical imperative • Christians: love thy neighbour as thyself • United we stand, divided we fall → Create a community of goodness, a moral circle … holds for all groups throughout living world!

  8. ±1.000.000 years ago:Hunter-gatherers • Environment: • changing: scarce or abundant • small, traveling bands • little competition from humans • → moral circle • → egalitarian, everybody’s contribution counts • → you knew everybody • → worst punishment: expulsion Homo erectus band

  9. Threatening and fighting • We cannot get rid of our drives (Sex, Affiliation, Novelty, Dominance) • To accept division of scarce resources, • We need common identity • (or balance of power, or negotiation, or fights) • And clear hierarchy

  10. Making friends Mending or extending the moral circle Alpha and Beta Bush & Mc Ain’t Can a stranger be a friend?

  11. Culture, negotiation and the moral circle • Negotiation: neither friends, nor enemies • Can we live with that? Let’s see… • Culture is the unwritten rules of the social game • That we use to divide scarce resources • So that we can balance our individual drives • …with our moral group needs • Only for group members!

  12. Individualism and the moral circle • Individualist: • Anybody could be admitted • Moral obligations might be diluted • Boundary is wide – even animals have rights • Collectivist: • Moral circle is invariable, only in-group • Strong mutual responsibilities • Extending it requires intensive rituals

  13. Power distance and the moral circle • Small power distance: • Privileges are frowned upon • Rights and obligations are equally shared • Negotiating and complaining are common • Large power distance: • Unequal division of power is accepted • Leaders are thought of as parents • Trias politica does not work

  14. Masculinity and the moral circle • Feminine: • Everyone supposed to be loyal • Permissive towards transgressions • Criminals need help, not punishment • Masculine: • Individual loyalty not taken for granted • Strong penalties for transgressions • Women may not be included

  15. Uncertainty Avoidance and the moral circle • Uncertainty tolerant: • Few rules but stick to them • Boundary of moral circle is malleable • Outsiders might be good, let’s find out • Uncertainty avoiding: • Boundary of moral circle is a wall • Fear of outsiders and transgressions • Many rules but only as symbols

  16. Long-term orientation and the moral circle • Long-term oriented: • Moral duties can vary with circumstances • Pragmatic reasoning • One is insignificant part of a large whole • Short-term oriented: • Moral duties are fixed by tradition • Never lose face, whatever the cost • Moral life is here and now

  17. Monumentalism and the moral circle • Monumentalist: • Proud, immutable, religious • One emotion and group at the time • Generous • Self-effacing: • Humble • Mixed emotions and affiliations at any time • Learn, study and change

  18. Indulgence and the moral circle • Indulgent: • Don’t worry, be happy • Urges and drives are good • Impulsive violence • Restrained: • Restrictive norms on sex, spending, eating • Low happiness and self-control • Duty is important

  19. What will make us tick? • Adaptability got us where we are • It will take us further • Negotiation is a crucial element • Enemies to negotiation • Terror • Ignorance • Irresponsibility of leaders • We need • Entente and détente • Impartial arbiters (next to proponents) • To know ourselves www.gertjanhofstede.com