What makes us tick? Gert Jan Hofstede
Unit of human life is groups! Desert island • 30 good people? • 30 bad people? • Mix? • Moral emotions; Corruption or correction
Perfect group → organism • Cell • Micro-organelles are symbiosis partners • Bees • No jealousy, equal reproduction • Chickens • Experiment: best individual vs best group • Body • Cancer = business success
Groups are successful (so far…) • Eukaryotes • Multicellular organisms • Especially social insects • Mammals • Humans • Can you construct a house? • Can you produce your own food? • Complex societies …so now the society is also a unit of evolution
Humans are special They evolved for • Adaptability (clothes, fire) • Collaboration • Empathy • Laughter, play • Language: gossip • Eye pupil • Prolonged youth
Personality (OCEAN) Personality OCEAN Personality OCEAN drives characteristic adaptations characteristic adaptations Life story learning goals roles in rituals stream of life goals goals learning characteristic institutions characteristic institutions Cul- tural his- tory Story of a society Per- sonal bio- graphy drives Culture (CHAOS) Culture IDCUL Human evolution: Personality – culture mutual homeostasis system Evolutionary Bases ( SAND) goals Sources: McCrae FFM, Hofstede 5D
Golden Rule for groups • Do to others as you would be done unto • Kant: categorical imperative • Christians: love thy neighbour as thyself • United we stand, divided we fall → Create a community of goodness, a moral circle … holds for all groups throughout living world!
±1.000.000 years ago:Hunter-gatherers • Environment: • changing: scarce or abundant • small, traveling bands • little competition from humans • → moral circle • → egalitarian, everybody’s contribution counts • → you knew everybody • → worst punishment: expulsion Homo erectus band
Threatening and fighting • We cannot get rid of our drives (Sex, Affiliation, Novelty, Dominance) • To accept division of scarce resources, • We need common identity • (or balance of power, or negotiation, or fights) • And clear hierarchy
Making friends Mending or extending the moral circle Alpha and Beta Bush & Mc Ain’t Can a stranger be a friend?
Culture, negotiation and the moral circle • Negotiation: neither friends, nor enemies • Can we live with that? Let’s see… • Culture is the unwritten rules of the social game • That we use to divide scarce resources • So that we can balance our individual drives • …with our moral group needs • Only for group members!
Individualism and the moral circle • Individualist: • Anybody could be admitted • Moral obligations might be diluted • Boundary is wide – even animals have rights • Collectivist: • Moral circle is invariable, only in-group • Strong mutual responsibilities • Extending it requires intensive rituals
Power distance and the moral circle • Small power distance: • Privileges are frowned upon • Rights and obligations are equally shared • Negotiating and complaining are common • Large power distance: • Unequal division of power is accepted • Leaders are thought of as parents • Trias politica does not work
Masculinity and the moral circle • Feminine: • Everyone supposed to be loyal • Permissive towards transgressions • Criminals need help, not punishment • Masculine: • Individual loyalty not taken for granted • Strong penalties for transgressions • Women may not be included
Uncertainty Avoidance and the moral circle • Uncertainty tolerant: • Few rules but stick to them • Boundary of moral circle is malleable • Outsiders might be good, let’s find out • Uncertainty avoiding: • Boundary of moral circle is a wall • Fear of outsiders and transgressions • Many rules but only as symbols
Long-term orientation and the moral circle • Long-term oriented: • Moral duties can vary with circumstances • Pragmatic reasoning • One is insignificant part of a large whole • Short-term oriented: • Moral duties are fixed by tradition • Never lose face, whatever the cost • Moral life is here and now
Monumentalism and the moral circle • Monumentalist: • Proud, immutable, religious • One emotion and group at the time • Generous • Self-effacing: • Humble • Mixed emotions and affiliations at any time • Learn, study and change
Indulgence and the moral circle • Indulgent: • Don’t worry, be happy • Urges and drives are good • Impulsive violence • Restrained: • Restrictive norms on sex, spending, eating • Low happiness and self-control • Duty is important
What will make us tick? • Adaptability got us where we are • It will take us further • Negotiation is a crucial element • Enemies to negotiation • Terror • Ignorance • Irresponsibility of leaders • We need • Entente and détente • Impartial arbiters (next to proponents) • To know ourselves www.gertjanhofstede.com