What Substance Makes Ice Melt The Fastest? By: Daniel Meyer Science Period 5
Problem Calcium Chloride Sugar Which Substance Melts Ice The Fastest? Rock Salt Table Salt Sand
Hypothesis I hypothesis that Calcium Chloride will melt Ice the fastest because when Calcium Chloride comes in contact with Ice, an energy is released. The energy that is released is heat energy. One reason Calcium Chloride melts Ice the fastest is because when the reaction occurs, the heat energy that is released helps melt the Ice along with the other chemicals in the Calcium Chloride.
Background Info On Rock Salt & Table Salt • 2nd fastest Ice melting substance • Both chemical formulas are NaCl • Both are edible, just Rock Salt needs to be made finer • Can be harmful to plants • Over 14,000 known uses for Salt • Freezing / Melting point is 801°C • Rock Salt is also called Halite they are the same compound
Background Info On Sand • Worn down rock • Over millions of years rocks break down from erosion until they are small enough to be called Sand • Boiling point is 2230°C • Melting point is 1710°C • Freezing point is 900-1200°C
Background Info On Sugar • Melting point is 185°C (365°F) • Harvested from plants • Also known as “White Gold” • Also known as “Glucose” (found in all green plants) • In early times it was not plentiful and it was very expensive • More than 17 kinds of sugar
Background Info On Calcium Chloride • Boiling point is 1600°C • Used in the manufacturing of legal drugs • Used to melt ice • Used in industry to remove moisture • CaCl2is its chemical formula • When it comes in contact with ice it has a reaction • Heat energy is created (speeds up process) • Melting point is 772°C • Freezing point is 52°C
Materials Needed For The Experiment • 24 3oz cups • 4tsp of Calcium Chloride, Rock Salt, Sand, Su-gar, Table Salt • 36oz of water • Freezer • Pad • ½ teaspoon measure • 1 teaspoon measure • Syringe • Timer • Pencil • Pad • Labels
Variables • Variable- something that can change the results in an experiment • The substances I tested • Control- something that remain constant in an experiment • The 1.5oz frozen cup of water with no substance on it was the control
Procedure • Fill 24 3oz. cups of water with 1.5oz of water • Freeze for an 8 hour period • Place 6 ice cups on the counter with a label for each • Place 1 teaspoon of each substance on top of the ice • Record the substance on the label • Repeat step 4 and 5 for the remaining substances(except experiment #3, add ½) 7. Cup #6 will have no substance. This will be the control.
Procedure Cont’d 8. Start timer for 10min 9. Record observations seen during the experiment 10. After the 10 minute interval use the syringe to measure the amount of melted ice in the cup 11. Record amount of water in the syringe and measure in ml.(milliliters) 12. Repeat steps 3 through 10 for each experiment (3 more times)
Graph Of My Results Amount of Water In ML Number Of Experiment
My Graph Conclusions • Calcium chloride melted the most ice the fastest • All together all the substances melted 128.5ml • Calcium Chloride melted a total of 57ml • Rock Salt melted a total of 27ml • Table Salt melted a total of 28ml • Sand melted a total of 5ml • Sugar melted a total of 11.5ml • Control melted a total of 6.5ml
Conclusion And Results After reviewing the results of all the experiments it has been observed that the amount of ice that melted appeared to have a wide range of results. There could be a number of reasons for the conflicting results, but I hypothesize that the variable that was previously discussed would be the reason for the difference. After completing the experiments, my original hypothesis that calcium chloride would melt the ice fastest is correct. The reason is because the calcium chloride produces a chemical reaction when it comes in contact with water and produces heat energy, which in turn makes the ice melt faster. Some of the results of the experiment were very interesting. Cont’d
Conclusion And Results Cont’d While sugar would never be considered an ice melting substance, it in fact did melt a small amount of ice. The other surprising factor is that table salt melted more ice than rock salt. There is one thing I would do differently in my experiment , I would have made the time interval 5 min so it took less time to do the experiments and I could have more time to perfect the rest of my project. As a future related experiment I would go outside in the winter and pour water on my driveway. I would have let it freeze and then I would add the substances on the ice. One variable could be the temperature outside. The question would be did it melt more ice because there were more granules of table salt, than of rock salt or of calcium chloride on the top of the ice?
Works Sited Page • Olph School, 8th Grade Science class, "Olphschool.org" <internalolphschool.org> January 27, 2010 Seneser, Fred, "Why does Salt melt ice?" • General Chemistry online FAQ Solutions Why does salt melt ice, <http://antoine.frostberg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/FAQ/why-salt-melts-ice.shtml> January 28, 2010 • "What makes ice melt fastest Do it Science!-science projects, science fair project, science tutorials, make models, physics project, high school science projects, project ideas, do it science" <www.doitscience.com/2009/04/what-makes-ice-melt-fastest/ > January 27, 2010 • “How does sand melt ice?” March 12, 2010 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/how_does_sand_melt • “how is sand formed?” top bits.com February 26,2010 http://www.topbits.com/how-sand-is-formed.htlm • Morris, PHD, john “does salt come from evaporated sea water?” institute for creation Research march 1, 2010 http://www.ice.org/articles/does-salt-come-from-evaporated-sea-water/ • Pasquesi, andy, “how does calcium chloride melt ice?” Ehow febuary 26,2010 http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5398442_calcium-chloride-melt-ice.htlm • “the physical & theoretical chemistry lab @ oxford univ.” (september 17,2003) January 28,2010 http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/sa/sand.html • Seneser, fred, “why does salt melt ice?” general chemestry online FAQ solutions why does salt melt ice january 28,2010 <http://antidote.frostberg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/FAQ/why-salt-melts-ice.htlm