individual level analysis n.
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  2. Focus of the study are the human as a species and as individuals. People who make policy. To understand the human decision-making process. To know how people make decisions, will lead to understanding on how international politics works.

  3. Human as a Specie How do fundamental human characteristics influence policy? • Humans seldom if ever make a purely rational decision. Ex. Choosing the college you will attend.

  4. Human as a Specie Cognitive factors • Seeking Cognitive Consistency Decision makers tend to ask cognitive consistency by discounting ideas and information that contradict their existing views. • Wishful Thinking To justify in their minds decisions that they have made or wish to make, humans often tell themselves that their choice will succeed.

  5. Human as a Specie Cognitive factors • Using Heuristic Devices Humans utilize heuristic devices, which are mental shortcuts that allows us to skip long and detailed gathering and analysis of information and come to decisions quickly. 2 Types of Heuristic Device Stereotype Analogies- comparisons between new situations or people and situations or people that we have earlier experienced or otherwise have learned about.

  6. Human as a Specie Emotional factors • As much as it might be comforting to imagine decision makers as coolly rational, the reality is that they are subject to the same emotions as everyone else. Psychological factors • Humankind has a number of common psychological traits that also help explain why feelings and decisions are usually less than fully rational. frustration-aggression theory- argues that individuals and even societies that are frustrated sometimes become aggressive.

  7. Human as a Specie Biological factors • Although they are highly controversial, various biological theories provide yet another way to explain why human decisions fall short of being fully rational . Ethology- the comparison of animal and human behavior. Gender- the possibility that some differences in political behavior are related to gender

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR How people act in organizations. Role behavior All people play a variety of roles based on our attitudes about the positions we have and behaviors we adopt in them.

  9. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Group Decision Making People behave differently in organizations than they would act if they were alone. Causes of Groupthink- avoiding psychological isolation is one cause of group think. Effects of Groupthink- its one impact is that it limits policy choices.

  10. Leaders and their Individual Traits Focuses on humans as individuals and how each leader’s personal characteristics help shape his or her decisions and, therefore events. Personality Scholars examine leader’s basic orientations toward self and toward others.

  11. Leaders and their Individual Traits Physical and mental Health A leader’s physical and mental health can be important factors in decision making. Ego and Ambition The egos and personal ambitions of political leaders can also influence especially the male variety, sometimes works to make leaders want to appear thought.

  12. Leaders and their Individual Traits Personal Experiences Decision makers are also affected by their personal experience. Perceptions Decision makers’ images of reality constitute a fifth idiosyncratic element that influences their approach to foreign policy.

  13. Leaders and their Individual Traits Perceptions Characteristics of Perceptions - Numerous common perceptual characteristics influence the policy making of individuals and even the policy preferences of nations.

  14. Leaders and their Individual Traits Perceptions 4 Common Characteristics of Perceptions We often assume that others see the world the same we do. We tend to see the behavior of others as more planned and coordinated than our own. We find it hard to understand why others dislike, mistrust , and fear us. We and others tend to have similar images of one another.

  15. Leaders and their Individual Traits Perceptions Perceptions and policy -Perceptions translate into policy because they form an operational reality. -Policy makers tend to act or operate based on perceptions, whether they are accurate or not.