L11: Big Idea 4-Synthesize Ideas-Organizing and Discussing the Results of Your Method
Lesson 11: Learning Goals • Choosing an organizational structure to categorize, analyze, interpret, and discuss their data as a result of implementing their inquiry method. • Learning Objective 4.2A: Interpreting, using, and synthesizing qualitative and/or quantitative data/information from various perspectives and sources (e.g., primary, secondary, print, nonprint) to develop and support an argument. • Learning Objective 4.2B: Providing insightful and cogent commentary that links evidence with claims.
Lesson 11: Focus-Ring of Truth • Indicate on the associated chart the number of a particular statement that is TRUE by placing that number within the ring and indicate the number of a statement that is FALSE by placing it far outside the ring. • You can place the number of a statement that you are unsure is TRUE or FALSE right outside the line of the circle.
Ring of Truth Statements • 1. In social sciences, the results component is where you evaluate your hypotheses. • 2. Most academic papers contain discussion components that tie the results or evidence back to the original question, hypothesis, or assumptions as well as linking it to the findings of other studies. • 3. It is acceptable to qualify your claims when discussing your results (using such words as some, probably, most often, and may. • 4. When describing your results in a paragraph, it is a “best practice” for the results to be described in order of most importance to least importance. • 5. If tables and figures are used to organize a student’s results, such should not repeat the same information already given in the text of the manuscript. • 6. In humanities-based research, limitations and implications are not included in the discussion component of the paper.
Ring of Truth Statements (Cont.) • 7. Historical academic papers often include results and a discussion of the results throughout the paper instead of distinct results and discussion sections. • 8. When including figures, charts, and graphs to organize your results, the labeling of such images is the same regardless of the discipline. • 9. Historical and humanities-based research papers can contain graphs and data tables. • 10. It is acceptable to determine which results to present by deciding which are relevant to the question(s) presented in the introduction, irrespective of whether or not the results support the hypothesis(es). The results component does not need to include every result you obtained or observed.
Ring of Truth 4 6 9 8 3 1 2 7 10 5
Results and Discussion in the Academic Paper In the Academic Paper, you must have the following elements: • Results, Product, or Findings • Presents the findings, evidence, results, or product. • Discussion, Analysis, and/or Evaluation • Interprets the significance of the results, product, or findings; explores connections to original research question/project goal. • Discusses the implications and limitations of the research or creative work.
How Do Results and Discussions Appear Differently for Each Discipline? • Each discipline values/emphasizes information pertaining to the results differently. • Each discipline discusses and evaluates the results differently (inductive versus deductive reasoning). • Results and discussion elements appear different in academic papers from discipline to discipline.
Helping You Understand • You must be able to identify different organizing principles for the results and discussion elements of academic papers in order to determine your own organizing principles. • The organization and discussion of the results should do the following: • connect back to the research question and purpose of inquiry • acknowledge the limitations and implications of the conclusions they are making. The way your results are presented and discussed will either enhance or detract from the credibility of your argument or conclusion.
Humanities Results and Discussion • After the 2 sections of the literature review, the author generates claims and provides evidence for such claims using the interpretive framework established in the literature review. This happens in several paragraphs over the next four pages.
Science/Engineering Results and Discussion • In the science/engineering paper, the results are provided in several sections, organized into tables or graphs and then are discussed in a different section, several pages thereafter.
Discovering Organizing Principles for Results and Discussion Elements 1. In your table group, spend 10–15 minutes reading the results and discussion components of the academic paper assigned to your group. 2. In your table and on chart paper, record a brief explanation of the organization or structure of these components. Be prepared to share how the structure of these components of the paper meets the requirement for the student to: • Present the findings, evidence, results, or product; • Interpret the significance of the results, product, or findings; • Explore connections to the original research question or project goal. • Discuss the implications and limitations of the research or creative work. 3. Record the differences in structure and organizing principles for these three papers in the table from the previous section.
Reflection-Include your response in your workbook. • What strategy will you use to determine the organizing principles of the results and discussion components of an academic paper?