Rock On! By: Kelcie Kawakami, Katie Guza, Lauren Masters, Nicole Warburton, Laura Newcombe
What is Rock? • Consolidated or unconsolidated solid mineral matter • Different types of rock: • Igneous • Sedimentary • Metamorphic
The Rock Cycle • Began when earth was volcanic • Igneous rocks are broken into sediments by erosion and weathering • They’re compacted together to form sedimentary rocks
The Rock Cycle • Then, they were buried underground and the head and pressure made them metamorphic rocks • Then, they meet again and become igneous rock
Part 1 of the Rock Cycle • It starts with a volcanic eruption. • Depending on where the lava cools, it can make one of two types of igneous rock.
Magma • Molten/partially molten rock beneath the earths surface • Magma forms when rock is heated by high temperatures beneath the earth’s surface (between 625 and 1200° Celsius)
Magma • Magma consists of: • Copper • Lead • Zinc • Gold • Silver
Magma • Products used for road -building, construction, manufacturing, landscaping • Crushed lava rock • Pumice • Cinders
Magma • They’re good for pollution-free thermal/electric energy • ex. Steam from the geysers of No. Cal has enough energy to produce the electricity needed for San Francisco
Igneous Rocks • Rock that forms when molten rock cools and hardens • Called fire rocks
Igneous Rocks • Factors that influence when melting occurs are: • Chemistry, material, pressure, presence of gases in the rock
Types of Igneous Rock • Granite • Scoria • Pumice • Obsidian
Pumice • Lava that cools quickly above ground • Floats in water
Granite • Formed by slowly cooling pockets of magma trapped under earth • Used for long-lasting monuments, decoration etc
Scoria • Lava cooling quickly above ground • It’s a type of glass not a mix of minerals
Obsidian • Lava cools above ground • Sharp edges, is a glass
Extrusive Rocks Above Ground • When volcanoes erupt, the magma that is visible above the earth is called lava
Intrusive Rocks Below Ground • Formed when magma from deep within the earth is trapped • When its cooled, it’s called igneous
Part 2 Of the Rock Cycle • Particles from the earth are transported down • Creates a level of sediment • Makes sedimentary rocks. • Four cycles of Sedimentary rocks: • Weathering • Transportation • Deposition • Lithification.
Sedimentary Rocks • Made as layers of material settle into each other over time • They’re created from hardened sediment, therefore they are sedimentary rocks
Spotting Sedimentary Rocks • Layers, bands, or stripes across them • Contain fossils of animals and plants • Scrapes easily • Crumbles easily
Clastic and Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks • Both contain: • Fossils • Ripple marks • Mud cracks • Raindrops from when the rock was formed
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks • Formed by weather • Examples • When rocks break down into pebbles, sand, or clay due to wind, ice, and water
Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks • Formed from chemical reactions (usually in the ocean) • Examples: • Limestone • Rock Salt • Rock Gypsum • Chert
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks • Conglomerate • Coarse, rounded grains • 64mm-256mm • Breccia • Coarse, angular grains • 2mm-64mm • Sandstone • Grains • 2mm-1/16mm • Shale
Part 3 Of the Rock Cycle • Creation of metamorphic rocks • Sedimentary rocks are pushed down • Depending on the temperature and pressure that the rock is subjected to, it can create different types of metamorphic rock.
Metamorphic Rocks • Rocks that have been changed physically (structurally or mineralogically) by heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids • “metamorphic” means “to change form”
Metamorphic Rocks • Affect of changes in temperature and pressure: • Minerals in the rock rearrange themselves into layers • OR they recrystallize into bigger crystals • They do not melt…if they did melt, they would turn into magma and therefore start the rock cycle over again
Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks • Have the texture of interlocking grains • Layers • Light and dark stripes or bands • Makes a “ching” noise rather than a “chunk” noise when tapped
Foliated Metamorphic Rocks • When the rocks experience unequal pressure, the rock’s minerals rearrange themselves to reduce the overall pressure on the rock • These rocks look striped
Minerals • Inorganic • Have identical chemical makeup and also their crystal shape. • If there is metal in them , they are shiny. • If there is no metal, they are dull.
Examples of Minerals • Gold • Silver • Platinum • Copper • Graphite • Mercury • Sulfur
Plate Tectonics • It is responsible for part of the rock cycle • Recycles rock materials • Creates the movement for the rock cycle.
Types of Igneous Rocks • Volcanic (Quickly cooled molten rock near the earth’s crust) • Plutonic (Slowly cooled rock really deep under ground.)
The Common Elements of the Earth’s Crust • Silicate minerals: ( make up 95% of the volume of igneous rocks) • Feldspars • Quartz • Micas • Pyroxenes • Amphiboles • Olivine
What is the Difference Between a Rock and a Mineral? • A mineral is homogenous ( pure, made of one substance) • A rock is a Heterogeneous mix of minerals.
Rock Cycle Song • ( Don't forget to sing this as a "Round"; after all, it is the Rock "Cycle"! )(Sing to the tune of "Row, Row, Row Your Boat") SEDIMENTARY rockHas been formed in layersOften found near water sourcesWith fossils from decayers
Then there's IGNEOUS rockHere since Earth was bornMolten Lava, cooled and hardenedThat's how it is formed
These two types of rocksCan also be transformedWith pressure, heat and chemicalsMETAMORPHIC they'll become.
Bibliography • http://www.rocksandminerals.com/rockcycle.htm • http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K12/rkcycle/rkcycleindex.html • http://www.chariho.k12.ri.us/curriculum/MISmart/ocean/rocksong.htm
Bibliography • http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/rockcycle.htm • http://www.beyondbooks.com/ear82/7.ask • http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10a.html