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HIV/AIDS in 2011

HIV/AIDS in 2011

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HIV/AIDS in 2011

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  1. HIV/AIDS in 2011 Olivia Cappello Smith College Peer Sexuality Educators November 29, 2011

  2. 30 Years of HIV/AIDS First detected among US gay men and injecting drug users in 1981 AIDS first came into use in 1982 HIV identified in 1984; test licensed in 1985 By 1985, HIV has spread to all regions of the world and to all groups 1987: AZT becomes first drug approved for treating AIDS 1987: AIDS Memorial Quilt first displayed on the National Mall to raise awareness 1988: World AIDS Day established 1995: UNAIDS established 2002: Global Fund Established 2007: 33 million people living with HIV 2010: US Travel Ban removed

  3. The AIDS Memorial Quilt

  4. HIV/AIDS in 2011 • Over 34 million people living with HIV • More than 95% in the developing world • Nearly 7,000 new infections every day • New infection rates have hit a plateau at 2.7 million per year for the last five years • $16 billion spent on AIDS treatment each year, but only 7 million people sick enough for AIDS treatment are receiving it • Donor funds have dropped 10% in last year, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS has halted grants until 2014

  5. The world in terms of HIV infection

  6. HIV/AIDS in the US • 1.2 million living with HIV • 42,011 people diagnosed in 2009 • Since epidemic began in 1981, 1,108,611 people have been diagnosed • Nearly 594,500 people have died • CDC data: • 61% of all new infections occur in men who have sex with men (MSM) (white MSM are the largest subset) • Young black MSM are the only risk group in the US with increasing infection rates • Women accounted for 23% of new infections in 2009 and 25% of those living with HIV in 2008 • Latinos and Blacks bear the most severe burden (20% and 44% of new infections in 2009, respectively) • CDC estimates that 20% of infected Americans- 1 in 5 people- don’t know that they are HIV-positive

  7. New HIV/AIDS Goals • Hillary Clinton: goal is to have an “HIV-free generation” • By 2015, no more mother-to-child infections • HRC and the Obama administration are endorsing interventions such as multidrug cocktails for pregnant women, male circumcision, and early treatment options

  8. UNAIDS 2011-2015 Strategy • Zero New Infections • Reduce transmission by half • Eliminate vertical transmission • Eliminate transmission among drug users • Zero AIDS-related Deaths • Universal access to antiretroviral therapy • Reduce TB deaths by half • Increase access to social services for HIV-affected households • Zero Discrimination • Reduce countries with punitive laws and practices surrounding HIV and at-risk groups by half • Eliminate HIV-related entry, stay, and residency restrictions in at least half of the countries that have them • Address the specific needs of women and girls in at least half of national HIV responses • Zero tolerance for gender-based violence • Very lofty goals- just increasing access to care will cost upwards of $23 billion

  9. Fighting HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral cocktails can be taken to lower HIV loads- has made HIV/AIDS a “chronic” diseases Many countries provide free HIV drug regimens to their sickest citizens Needle exchange programs Promotion of safer sex methods Still no vaccination or pharmaceutical prophylactic method http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6zCNdEfm5w

  10. Searching for a Cure • CAPRISA 004, a microbicidal vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir, showed promise in 2010 trials in South Africa • Protected 39% of users and lowered risk among regular users by 54% • Wider trial in 2011 was halted because the gel proved safe but ineffective- 6% of users became infected • Researchers are unsure why it worked in one trial and not the other • If such a gel were to be developed, it would be revolutionary for HIV/AIDS prevention • Post-exposure prophylactic treatment with antiretrovirals might be effective in reducing transmission among men having sex with men

  11. A Functional Cure? Timothy Ray Brown, AKA the “Berlin Patient”, received a bone marrow transplant in 2007 Since receiving his transplant, he has been free of HIV About 1% of Caucasians are immune to HIV California Institute of Regenerative Medicine is planning clinical trials using stem cells Other trials are underway using gene therapies to suppress viral loads or reverse HIV dormancy

  12. What you can do • Protect yourself by using latex barriers every time you might be exposed to sexual fluids or blood • Get tested regularly with a 20 minute rapid screening • Antibodies show within three to six months of exposure to HIV • Raise money for AIDS research by organizations such as amfAR • Buy (RED) products, whose sales go partly to The Global Fund • Speak up! Write letters to Congress or the President asking for more funding

  13. Sources http://www.amfar.org/abouthiv/article.aspx?id=3352 Unaids.org fact sheets on testing, HIV/AIDS http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2011/05/16/apparent-immunity-gene-cures-bay-area-man-of-aids/ http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/22/health/unaids-says-new-worldwide-infections-have-hit-a-plateau.html http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/09/health/policy/hillary-rodham-clinton-aims-for-aids-free-generation.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=clinton%20and%20aids&st=cse&gwh=02DD94AB54B4D805F56498E41B873889 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/24/health/global-aids-fund-cancels-fund-raising-and-seeks-new-manager.html http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm http://chadrobin.blogspot.com/2011/04/blah-blah-hiv-aids http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.htm.html http://teenbiotechchallenge.ucdavis.edu/TBC09/domonique_lewis/history.html http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/29/health/new-hope-of-a-cure-for-hiv.html?pagewanted=2&hpw&gwh=7D24BE8EF1EF7D5BAA29A727AC475C09