Chapter 13. The Economics of Water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 13 the economics of water n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 13. The Economics of Water PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 13. The Economics of Water

play fullscreen
1 / 32
Chapter 13. The Economics of Water
166 Views
Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 13. The Economics of Water

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  2. The Value of Water • A resource is cheap when it is plentiful: • The price goes up as it becomes scarce • This is a scarcity value • The water-diamond paradox • As the price goes up, we begin to substitute: • one product for another • one location for another • We can also become more efficient

  3. Role of Governments • As water provider: • Many utilities are started for the purpose of providing water and wastewater services • These are needed to promote industry and development • Water is subsidized in the West to promote development • TVA developed the dams in Tennessee for development • As water regulator: • Must allocate based on efficient and equitable uses • Must protect the environment

  4. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  5. Public vs. Private Good • A public good or shared resource • One that the general public benefits from, but this use does not interfere with or diminish the use by others • Examples: air, water recreation, national defense • A private good or commodity • One that can not be shared with others • Examples: milk, gas

  6. Public vs. Private Use • Public Uses: • Uses of water that benefit the general public • Examples: fountains, rivers, lakes • Private Uses: • Uses that benefit individuals • Examples: agriculture, industries, water mill • According to most economists, letting the market put a price on water is a way to ensure it is used efficiently

  7. Privatization • The delegation of water management to the private sector • Private water utilities that manage water and wastewater • Water marketing - used to transfer water between sectors

  8. Privatization • Private companies provide 15% of US water services • In 1999, Atlanta decided to privatize city’s water system • United Water, a subsidiary of Suez (French company) received a 20-year lease • Responsible for • 1 drinking water treatment plant • 3 wastewater treatment plants • Water distribution system, maintenance, and billing

  9. Privatization • United Water would recieve $21.4 million in annual revenue • Projected savings to Atlanta over 20-year lease was $400 million • January 2003, Atlanta withdrew lease • Higher than expected operation & maintenance costs • Poor water service • Water quality problems

  10. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  11. Water Affordability • 1.1 billion (out of world population of almost 7 billion) people do not have access to safe drinking water • Average cost of water in US is 0.5% of income • Since price is fixed, for low-income people it is a higher % of income • In 1990’s, France passed laws to guarantee access to water • Could not cut off water to homes with children or elderly

  12. Water Affordability • Average residential water use in US • Toilets 36% • Bath and shower 28% • Washing machine 20% • Outdoor use 16% • Some water agencies have increased cost to residential users to reduce consumption • States (including GA) have passed laws to require low-flow toilets in new homes

  13. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  14. Water Marketing • In the US water marketing is common in western states • Between individual irrigators • Between irrigators and cities • Between irrigators and industry • Conflict between desire to use local resource for economic benefit and concept that water is a public resource

  15. Water Marketing • Unregulated water markets • Farmer sells his water to city • Farmer makes a lot of money • City builds a lot of homes • The local economy goes broke • The county where the farmer sold his water loses the taxes the farmer paid • The local businesses that depended on the fertilizer, feed, seed, farm equipment loses his business • These are indirect impacts

  16. Water Marketing • Regulated water markets • Water transfers restricted to county of origin • Water transfers restricted to type of use • i.e., Ag to Ag, City to City, Industry to Industry • Non-local water transfers must be approved by the local county of origin

  17. Water Marketing Australia • Murray-Darling Basin • Australia’s largest river system • 19 inches annual rainfall • 50% of Australia’s cropland • 75% of Australia’s irrigated land • 10% of population • 3 states: New South Wales, Queensland, & Victoria • Murray-Darling Basin Commission established in 1917 to manage water

  18. Water Marketing Australia • Until 1980’s water use for irrigation was unlimited • Shortages, low river flow, and salination of soils became a problem • 1981 limits were imposed and trading was allowed • By mid-1990’s water was selling for $86 per acre-foot per year

  19. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  20. Water Banking • The state buys and sells water resources • Takes surplus and/or unneeded water • Stores it and then sells it to users • Lakes for surface water • Aquifers for ground water • Can also require that a certain percentage (say 10%) of every private water transfer goes into the bank - a transfer tax.

  21. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Surface water marketing • Ground water marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  22. Pollutant Trading • Cap and trade • A cap is placed on how much point sources can emit (lbs of phosphorus per year, for example) • If a point source is emitting less than cap then they can sell excess credits (in lbs of phosphorus) • If a point source is exceeding the cap they have 2 choices: • Install advanced technology to remove pollutants • Buy credits from point source that has credits to sell

  23. Pollutant Trading • Price is determined by buyer and seller • Trades are restricted to watershed • Free market determines the most efficient way in terms of cost to reduce total pollutant load in watershed • Trades between point sources are common • Trades between point sources (buyers) and nonpoint sources (sellers) less common due to uncertainty in nonpoint source controls

  24. Pollutant Trading • Trading system in the Tar-Pamlico River basin in North Carolina • Nitrogen and phosphorus credits • Mostly point source trades • Trading system in the Murray-Darling basin • Salinity credits

  25. Chapter 13. The Economics of Water • The Value of Water • Water as a Public versus a Private Good • Water Affordability • Water Marketing • Surface water marketing • Ground water marketing • Water Banking • Pollution Fees and Credits • Environmental Values

  26. Environmental Values • What is the economic value of improved water quality or leaving more water in streams to support wildlife? • Difficult question for economists • Use studies that measure “willingness to pay” • What is the value of “ecosystem services”

  27. Summary • The value of water increases as it becomes more scarce • Two views of water: a public resource or a private good • Water markets have been used to allocate water • Assigning an economic value to environmental value of water is difficult