Privacy, information access, and security – the perils of online searching in a panopticon society donna Bair-Mundy
Intercepting topics Security Libraries Privacy Surveillance
Topics What is privacy? Why do we need it? Why do we need surveillance? Creating a Surveillance Society: Building the Panopticon What does this have to do with online searching? Privacy in Libraries
Discussion questions: What is privacy? Why do we need it?
Informational privacy - Westin's definition - part 1 Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others. Control Westin, Alan F. 1970. Privacy and freedom. London: Bodley Head.
Informational privacy - Westin's definition - part 2 Viewed in terms of the relation of the individual to social participation, privacy is the voluntary and temporary withdrawal of a person from the general society through physical or psychological means, either in a state of solitude or, when among larger groups, in a condition of anonymity or reserve. Choice Temporal Varied means
Informational privacy - Westin's definition - part 3 The individual's desire for privacy is never absolute, since participation in society is an equally powerful desire. Ongoing dialectic
Informational privacy - Westin's definition - part 4 Thus each individual is continually engaged in a personal adjustment process in which he balances the desire for privacy with the desire for disclosure and communication of himself to others, in light of the environmental conditions and social norms set by the society in which he lives. Social norms
Informational privacy - Westin's definition - part 5 The individual balances the desire for privacy with the desire for disclosure and communication of himself to others] in the face of pressures from the curiosity of others and from the processes of surveillance that every society sets in order to enforce its social norms. Privacy v. Surveillance
Release from tensions of life in society requires release from pressure of playing social roles Westin's privacy theory: 4 functions of privacy Power to define the boundaries of the “core self” Personal autonomy Emotional release Self-evaluation Limited & protected communication Need to integrate experiences into meaningful pattern; essential for creativity Share confidences and intimacies only with those one trusts Westin, Alan F. 1970. Privacy and freedom. London: Bodley Head.
Individual privacy versus individual secrecy Privacy Allowed and in some cases required for socially-sanctioned acts. Stress reducing. Secrecy Involves socially proscribed acts. Stress inducing. Margulis, Stephen T. 1977. Conceptions of privacy: current status and next steps. Journal of social issues 33(3):5-21, p. 10. Margulis, Stephen T. 2003. Privacy as a social issue and behavioral concept. Journal of social issues 59(2):243-261.
Us Us Us Us Election day Us Them
On the network news: Ayman al-Zawahiri
A few days later . . . How do you feel?
Discussion question: Why do we need surveillance?
Need for surveillance (2) Beniger, James R. 1986. The control revolution: technological and economic origins of the Information Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Surveillance in a transforming society Zuboff, Shoshana. 1988. In the age of the smart machine: the future of work and power. New York: Basic Books.
Roles of Surveillance (1) Used to catch the criminals Used as means to control workers Necessitated by technology Facilitated by technology
Roles of surveillance (2) Provision of services (Social Security) Allows participation (Voter registration) Protection against threat • Means of social control • Discover and rout out deviance • Threat of surveillance used to promote compliance with the law
Routing out “deviants” Round-up of Pennsylvania Quakers (1777) Sedition Act of 1798 Espionage Act of 1917 – 1918 amend. Internment of persons of Japanese ancestry—WW II Used against Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Jews, Russians, Lithuanians, Finns, Irish, Catholics, Amish, Mennonites, Jehovah’s Witnesses (then called Russelites), Roma (then called gypsies), African Americans.
Dealing with dissidents President Franklin Roosevelt had FBI spy on New Deal opponents President Johnson had FBI spy on opponents of his Vietnam War policy President Nixon had FBI, CIA, NSA, IRS, and Army Intelligence spy on and harass his perceived enemies United States. Congress. Senate. The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. 1976. Final report.
“COINTELPRO New Left” FBI program to “expose, disrupt, and otherwise neutralize” activities groups and individuals affiliated with the “New Left” Extensive and mostly illegal surveillance United States. Congress. Senate. The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. 1976. Final report.
“COINTELPRO New Left” Had members arrested on marijuana charges Sent anonymous letters about a student’s activities to parents, neighbors, and the parents’ employers Sent anonymous letters about New Left faculty members (signed “A Concerned Alumni” or “A Concerned Taxpayer”) to university officials, legislators, Board of Regents, and the press United States. Congress. Senate. The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. 1976. Final report.
Creating a Surveillance Society: Building the Panopticon
Surveillance - Plague model Highly visible Isolation and observation Social control Foucault, Michel. 1995. Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.
Surveillance—Panopticon model Jeremy Bentham • Legal theorist • Rationalism • Utilitarianism • Eccentric
Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon cells entry inspector’s lodge walkway
Stealth surveillance – communication interception 1830s Telegraph invented 1870s Telephone invented 1960s Packet switching 1880s First reports of wiretaps in press Packet sniffers 1860s Wiretapping during Civil War
What does this have to do with online searching?
Online searching – Google jacso “as we may search” One of Google’s servers
Sending your search request (1) search search search 2 1 3
Sending your search request (2) search 1 To: 22.214.171.124
Packet-switched network switch switch switch switch switch switch
Online searching Server where the database resides
Packet-switched network switch switch switch UH router switch switch AT&T switch
Mark Kleinformer AT&T technician Secret room 611 Folsom Street, San Francisco, California
Mark Kleinformer AT&T technician Narus STA 6400 STA = Semantic Traffic Analyzer
William Binneyformer intelligence official with the NSA Saw that the NSA was spying on domestic communications Quit the NSA in 2001 Became a whistle-blower Estimated that he NSA had intercepted trillions of communications "transactions" of Americans such as phone calls, emails, and other forms of data (but not including financial data)
Edward Snowden,former NSA contractor Provided, and continues to provide, documents that corroborate what many people had suspected https://www.eff.org/document/2013-06-06-wapo-prism
Edward Snowden MUSCULAR – NSA and GCHQ secretly raided data from Google and Yahoo
Edward Snowden MUSCULAR
Edward Snowden MUSCULAR NSA used a variety of methods to grab data flowing between Google’s data centers. http://washingtonpost.com http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/nsa-infiltrates-links-to-yahoo-google-data-centers-worldwide-snowden-documents-say/2013/10/30/e51d661e-4166-11e3-8b74-d89d714ca4dd_story.html
Spy programs that we know of PRISM accessing Internet data of 9 major Internet companies in the U.S. MUSCULAR Secretly broke into main communication links that connect Yahoo and Google data centers around the world UPSTREAM cable-tapping of fiber cables and infrastructure, giving direct access to fiber-optic cables that carry Internet and telephone traffic via AT&T, Verizon, Sprint