Today’s Target: Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the North and South as they begin the war.
What is the JCOSJoint Chief of Staff • Body of senior uniformed leader in the United States Department of Defense • Advise the President, the National Security Council, and Department of Homeland Security –Chairman, Vice Chairman, Leaders from the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, National Guard • Meet in Pentagon in DC
Chairman of the JCOS General Martin E. Dempsey – 18th and current chair of the Joint Chief of Staff
Secretary of War, 1861 Edward M. Stanton
The Pentagon The headquarters of the Department of Defense located in Arlington, Virginia
Prepare with a quiz Use your notes to answer thoughtfully – one minute per question.
How many free states were there fighting for the Union? How many slave states were there fighting for the Union? How many slaves states seceeded and fought for the Confederates? What was the capital city of the Confederates? What was the capital city of the Union? What might happen in the state of the Kentucky if the Union/United States banned all slavery in all states?
Become a JCOS Think Tank for Lincoln It’s 1861 The Union has just surrended Ft. Sumter to the South The United States has a standing army of less than 17000 and 1/3 of those army members join the South Lincoln needs you to find out all the strengths and weaknesses of both the North and South so that he can come up with a plan to defeat the South.
Become a JCOS Think Tank for Lincoln You will receive become an expert in some part of the strengths and weaknesses of the North and South. You must take notes on the confidential information you will be given, and then prepare to meet with other members of Lincoln’s team to prepare a military strategy for the North. You will have 15 minutes to fill your page with notes.
To Do… Independently, read your assigned “TOP SECRET” briefing. Each of you has different information. Take notes on the most important information in bulleted format. Be prepared to share your ideas with a team of military experts shortly. Then you will suggest a war strategy to President Lincoln.
It’s time to share…. You have become an expert in one area of the strengths of the North and South. Meet in a group with other experts and add to your list of strengths and weaknesses. Once you’ve all shared your top secret information, prepare a strategy to present to Lincoln so he can decide how to win the war against the “rebelling” Confederate states.
Sharing Plan • Step One: Each of you need to spend one minute sharing what you know. NO PROPOSALS at this time, just listen to the strengths and weaknesses of both sides.
It’s Briefing Time – Each of you have ONE minute to share what you’ve learned with your team. • When you’re not talking, you can can listen and take notes on the back of the note page. • One minute per person. Be thinking of a proposal.
Review Strengths and Weaknesses • Chairmen – Please lead your groups into a review using your target sheet. Include the following terms: • Railroads, food farms, wealth, military leaders, population, navy, Robert E. Lee, Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, land, manufacturing, passion, and anything else….
Step Two: Create a Strategy Proposal • After Ft. Sumter, the North and South both call for volunteer soldiers. • They believe the war will be over fast. • 100, 000 volunteer for the South. • 75,000 volunteer for the North. • They all sign up to serve in the army for about 90 days. Lincoln and Davis both know that will not be enough manpower.
Step Two: Create a Strategy Proposal • Are specific geographical areas you would like to focus on ? • How will you Counter Act the South’s defensive plan? • How will you Counter Act the South’s advantages? • Are there any untapped resources you would use? • How will you get enough soldiers to fight for your side? • Will you have a meaningful name to the strategy?
Step Three: Share your strategy. One member of your group needs to present the strategy to the entire class.
Anaconda Plan – Offensive Strategy developed by Winfred Scott • Construct and maintain a naval blockade of 3,500 miles of Confederate Coastlines • 3 ships in 1861 • 400 plus by 1862 • 671 by end of war • 500,000 sign up – best duty and share in the profits of Confederate ships seized • Maintain control of the Mississippi River to cut off South from western help • Guard DC • Prevent Europe from giving the South help • Capture Richmond, Virginia – capital of the Confederate government
Anaconda Plan – Into Action • George McClelland of Ohio put in command of all troops. • He suggests an attack on Richmond – the CS Capital • Scott agrees, and the training begins • In June, the Union and Confederates meet near the Manassas River in Virginia for the First Battle of Bull Run
Top Six Significant War Events • 1st Battle of Bull Run • Emancipation Proclamation • Siege of Vicksburg and the Mississippi River – US Grant is appointed Commander of US Forces • Battle of Gettysburg, PA • Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address • Sherman’s March to the Sea – Strategy Changes • Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
Step Four: Compare your strategy to the Anaconda Plan. • Similar: Different: • What would you change to your strategy after seeing others and Lincolns: ____________________________________________
Do you think any of the ideas that you heard today would have made the war end more quickly? • Each group can have one member share any idea they believe might have expedited the war.