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Federalist #10

Federalist #10

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Federalist #10

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  1. Federalist #10 James Madison

  2. James Madison • Born: March 16, 1751 in Port Conway, King George, Virginia • Died: June 28, 1836 in Montpelier in Virginia • A student of history and government, well-read in law, he participated in the framing of the Virginia Constitution in 1776, served in the Continental Congress, and was a leader in the Virginia Assembly. • The 4th President of the U.S.

  3. Federalists vs. Antifederalists • Alexander Hamilton • United States should be a national family • Power should be centered in a national government • Constrain liberty for national unity • Trust the elites • Thomas Jefferson • Island communities • Power should be dispersed between States • Liberty should check the national government • Trust the average citizen

  4. Federalist Papers • Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay under the pseudonym Publius • Written to convince the public to ratify the constitution • Federalist #10 is thought of as the most influential out of all 85 essays.

  5. Main Themes • There are two methods to cure the problems caused by factions: • Removing its causes • Controlling its effects • To Remove a faction you must: • Destroy the liberty which is essential to its existence • Or give every citizen the same opinions, interests, and passions • “Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, an aliment without which it instantly expires. But it could not be less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction. • The options of removing the cause of a faction are impractical and impossible, therefore, “the inference to which we are brought, is, that the causes of faction cannot be removed; and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects.”

  6. Main Points continued… • A Republic, as outlined in the constitution, will be able to control factions. • “However small the Republic may be, the Representatives must be raised to a certain number, in order to guard against the cabals of a few; and that, however large it may be, they must be limited to a certain number, in order to guard against the confusion of a multitude.” This will guard against factions • “Each representative will be chosen by a greater number of citizens in the large (national) than in the small (state) Republic, it will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to practice with success the vicious arts, and will more likely centre on the men who possess the most attractive merit and the most diffusive and established characters.” • “The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States.”

  7. Questions? • Why does Madison want to control factions? • How will the constitution prevent factions from dividing the government?