Praxis II: Principles of Learning & TeachingK-6 & 7-12Review Session Dr. Tom Hawley November 6, 2003 5:00 – 7:00 pm
Overview of the Principles of Learning & Teaching Exam • Designed to assess a beginning teacher’s knowledge of a variety of job-related criteria
Principles of Learning & Teaching at a Glance • 2 hour test • 12 short-answer questions and 24 multiple-choice questions • Format: 4 case studies, each with 3 constructed-response questions and 24 multiple choice questions
Principles of Learning & Teaching at a Glance • Includes 4 case studies, each presenting a particular teaching situation • For each case study, you will respond to 3 short-answer questions • 12 short-answer questions will cover all of the content areas • Each short-answer question will be scored on a scale of 0-2 • Each case study with short-answer answers will require ~25 minutes –budget your time!
Principles of Learning & Teaching at a Glance • Plan on ~25 minutes per case study • Allow ~10 minutes to answer each of the two sections of multiple-choice questions • Multiple-choice questions are not associated with the case studies
Content Categories • Students as Learners (~35%) • Instruction and Assessment (~35%) • Communication Techniques (~15%) • Teacher Professionalism (~15%)
Content Categories • Students as Learners (~35%) • Student development & the learning process • Students as diverse learners • Student motivation and the learning environment
Content Categories • Instruction and Assessment (~35%) • Instructional strategies • Planning instruction • Assessment strategies
Content Categories • Communication Techniques (~15%) • Effective verbal and nonverbal communication • Cultural and gender differences in communication • Stimulating discussion and responses in the classroom
Content Categories • Teacher Professionalism (~15%) • The reflective practitioner • The larger community
Student as Learners • Student Development and the Learning Process • Knowing each theorist’s major ideas and being able to compare and contrast one theory with another • How can these theories be applied to teaching practice
Student as Learners • Student Development and the Learning Process – Important theorists • Albert Bandura • Jerome Bruner • John Dewey • Jean Piaget • Lev Vygotsky • Howard Gardner • Abraham Maslow • B.F. Skinner
Student as Learners • Albert Bandura • Social learning theory: Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others • Social cognitive theory: Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory
Student as Learners • Albert Bandura • Social cognitive theory distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning • Enactive learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions (self-regulation of behavior, goal directed behavior, self-monitoring) • Vicarious learning is learning by observing others
Student as Learners • Albert Bandura • Four elements of observational learning • Attention • Retention • Production • Motivation and reinforcement
Student as Learners • Jerome Bruner • Promoted the concept of discovery learning by encouraging teachers to give students more opportunity to learn on their own. • Discovery learning encourages students to think for themselves and discover how knowledge is constructed • Discovery learning is learning in which students construct an understanding on their own • Related to Piaget and Dewey’s views
Student as Learners • John Dewey • Viewed problem solving according to the scientific method as the proper way to think and the most effective teaching method • Schools should teach learners how to solve problems and inquire/interact with their natural and social environments • Every learner attempts to explore and understand his/her environment
Student as Learners • Jean Piaget • Organization – ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories • Schemes – mental systems of categories and experiences • Adaptation – adjustment to the environment
Student as Learners • Jean Piaget • Adaptation – adjustment to the environment • Assimilation – fitting new information into existing schemes • Accommodation – altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information • Equilibration – search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment
Student as Learners • Jean Piaget • Operations – actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions • Four stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor – 0-2 yrs – involves the senses and motor activity • Preoperational – 2-7 yrs – stage before a child masters logical mental operations • Concrete operational – 7-11 yrs – mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations • Formal operational – 11-adult – mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables
Student as Learners • Jean Piaget • Goal of education should be to help children learn how to learn • Importance of developmentally appropriate education • Individuals construct their own understandings • Value of play
Student as Learners • Lev Vygotsky • Sociocultural theory – emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society • Children learn the culture of their community (ways of thinking & behaving) through interactions
Student as Learners • Lev Vygotsky • Zone of Proximal Development – phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support • Scaffolding – support for learning and problem solving. The support could be anything that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner • Private talk
Student as Learners • How might a teacher apply some of Leve Vygotsky’s ideas about scaffolding and direct instruction in the classroom?
Student as Learners • Howard Gardner • Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic (verbal) • Musical, • Spatial, • Logical-mathematical • Bodily-kinesthetic (movement) • Interpersonal (understanding others) • Intrapersonal (understanding self) • Naturalist
Student as Learners • What does Gardner’s work on multiple intelligences suggest about planning instruction?
Student as Learners • Abraham Maslow • Humans have a hierarchy of needs ranging from lower-level needs for survival and safety to higher-level needs for intellectual achievement and finally self-actualization • Self-actualization – fulfilling one’s potential
Student as Learners • What does Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggest for motivation for learning in the classroom?
Student as Learners • B.F. Skinner • Operant conditioning – a form of learning whereby a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement • When behaviors are followed by desirable consequences, they tend to increase in frequency • When behaviors do not produce results, they typically decrease and may even disappear altogether
Student as Learners • Erik Erikson • Eight stages of psychosocial development • Developmental crisis – conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative • The way in which the individual resolves each crisis will have a lasting effect on that person’s self-image and view of society
Student as Learners • Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages • Trust vs. mistrust • Autonomy vs. shame/doubt • Initiative vs. guilt • Industry vs. inferiority • Identity vs. role confusion • Intimacy vs. isolation • Generativity vs. stagnation • Ego integrity vs. despair
Student as Learners • Lawrence Kohlberg • Moral dilemmas – situations in which no choice is clearly and indisputably right • Stages of moral reasoning • Level I – Preconventional Moral Reasoning – judgment is based own person needs and others’ rules • Level 2 – Conventional Moral Reasoning – judgment is based on others; approval, family expectations, traditional values, laws of society, and loyalty to country
Student as Learners • Lawrence Kohlberg • Stages of moral reasoning • Level 3 – Postconventional Moral Reasoning – social contract and universal ethics • Moral reasoning – the thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong
Student as Learners • Carol Gilligan • Proposed a different sequence of moral development, an Ethic of Care • Individuals move from a focus on self-interest to moral reasoning based on commitment to specific individuals and relationships, and then to the highest level of morality based on the principles of responsibilities and care for all people
Student as Learners • Constructivism – a theoretical perspective that proposes that learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiences—knowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality.
Student as Learners • Metacognition – One’s knowledge and beliefs about one’s own cognitive processes, and one’s resulting attempts to regulate those cognitive processes to maximize learning and memory • Knowledge about our own thinking processes
Student as Learners • Schemata (plural for schema) – In contemporary cognitive psychology, an organized body of knowledge about a specific topic • Basic structures for organizing information, concepts
Student as Learners • Transfer – A phenomenon whereby something that an individual has learned at one time affects how the individual learns or performs in a later situation • Influence of previously learned material on new material
Student as Learners • Bloom’s Taxonomy – a taxonomy in which six learning tasks, varying in degrees of complexity, are identified for the cognitive domain: • Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
Student as Learners • Make sure you can recognize the differences between lower-order and higher-order thinking in classroom activities, using Bloom’s taxonomy.
Student as Learners • Intrinsic motivation – the internal desire to perform a particular task; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward • Extrinsic motivation – motivation promoted by factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed; motivation created by external factors (reward or punishment)
Students as Diverse Learners • Learning styles – characteristic approaches to learning and studying
Students as Diverse Learners • Performance Modes • Concrete operational thinking (Piaget) • Late elementary to middle school • Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations • Visual and aural learners
Students as Diverse Learners • Gender differences • Cultural expectations and styles
Areas of exceptionality in student learning: • Visual and perceptual difficulties • Special physical or sensory challenges • Learning disabilities • Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD); Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) • Functional mental retardation
Legislation and institutional responsibilities relating to exceptional students: • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) • Inclusion • Mainstreaming • Least Restrictive Environment • IEP – what’s included?
Approaches for accommodating various learning styles, intelligences, or exceptionalities: • Differentiated instruction • Alternative assessments • Testing modifications
Student learning is influenced by: • Individual experiences • Individual talents • Prior learning • Language • Culture • Family • Community Values
Consider: • Multicultural backgrounds • Age-appropriate knowledge and behavior • The student culture at the school • Family backgrounds • Linguistic patterns and differences • Cognitive patterns and differences • Social and emotional issues