Identify Creative Learning Approaches……. …….for a learning Programme
Acknowledging de Bono: • Imagine a ship at sea that is in trouble. The lights keep going out. • The engine is faltering. The rudder is unreliable. The first mate is drunk. • The crew is very demoralised. The service is appalling. • The passengers on the ship are very dissatisfied.
Then a new captain and first mate are flown in by helicopter • Everything changes. • Crew morale is lifted • Service improves • The engine is fixed • The rudder is fixed • The lights stay on • Everything seems fine.
New directions driving creative teaching • The movement towards constructivism • An appreciation of learning styles ( sensory) • An understanding that learners have different information processing styles ( styles for constructing learning) • Availability of technology to enable the overall goal of personalization of the learning experience
Benefits of Creative Learning • Greater Learner Independence • Learner Centred Active Learning • Learner Involvement • Learner Motivation • Re-inforcement of Learning • Learner Autonomy • Self-directed Learner
Vintage of the clasical educational model • The Universities of Bologna ( Italy), Paris ( France) and Oxford ( England) were all created about 400 years before Gutenberg’s printing press was created. • Schools are seen largely as preparation platforms for higher education • Is that a good model for a post internet post WTO post mobile phone world?
Saya, the robot teacher launched in Japan • Pupils in Japan have been given lessons by the world’s first robot teacher. • The humanoid named Saya is multilingual, can do roll calls and set tasks from text books.
Saya, the robot teacher launched in Japan • ‘She’ has a latex face, modelled on a university student, controlled by 18 motors to create expressions including happiness, • surprise, • fear, • disgust, • sadness and • even anger.
Waiting for recognition… • Saya will start teaching full-time after passing a trial term at a Tokyo primary. • Her creator, science professor Hiroshi Kobayashi, had been working on the robot for 15 years. • The original, named Pikarin, had a metal head with exposed wires and levers.
Service conditions ? • Salary, tenure and other benefits have yet to be decided, but perhaps a special type of teachers’ union may well be in the works!
Some other interesting developments • Digital Socrates • Future Computers
This pen sort of instrument produces both the monitor as well as the keyboard on flat surfaces from where you can just carry out the normal operations you do on your desktop.
With Bluetooth technology... See the forthcoming computers within our pockets ..
Smart USB disks: an alternative to laptops • Long years ago we had floppy disks • Then came CD-ROM • DVD for more storage • Universal Serial Bus (USB) stick • Sandisk, Transcend, others • 16GB for US$ 30
The web is just 5000 days old • 100 billion clicks per day • 55 trillion links • 2 million e-mails per second • Uses 5% of the global electricity on the planet • Total traffic about 7 Terrabytes per second • 246 Hexabytes Storage
What could be happening in the next 5000 days ? • Semantic web • Natural language processing • Gestures • Voice • Touch • Superior machine intelligence • Robots
What makes a teacher great ? • Bill Gates on www.ted.com
Our approach : Ostrich- like • What affects the rest of the world will not impact us • We are different
Encouraging constructivism • Learners learn by fitting new information to what they already know • Thus prior knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the learners plays an important role • Collaborative learning environments and contexts for team-work must be created • The key notion in this new "constructivist theory" is that people learn best by actively constructing their own understanding.
12 Principles of Constructivist teaching • "The brain is a parallel processor". It simultaneously processes many different types of information, including thoughts, emotions, and cultural knowledge. Effective teaching employs a variety of learning strategies. • "Learning engages the entire physiology". Teachers can't address just the intellect. • "The search for meaning is innate". Effective teaching recognizes that meaning is personal and unique, and that students' understandings are based on their own unique experiences.
Constructivist teaching • "The search for meaning occurs through 'patterning' ". Effective teaching connects isolated ideas and information with global concepts and themes. 5. "Emotions are critical to patterning". Learning is influenced by emotions, feelings, and attitudes. • "The brain processes parts and wholes simultaneously". People have difficulty learning when either parts or wholes are overlooked. • "Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral perception". Learning is influenced by the environment, culture, and climate.
Constructivist teaching • "Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes". Students need time to process 'how' as well as 'what' they've learned. • "We have at least two different types of memory: a spatial memory system, and a set of systems for rote learning". Teaching that heavily emphasizes rote learning does not promote spatial, experienced learning and can inhibit understanding. • "We understand and remember best when facts and skills are embedded in natural, spatial memory". Experiential learning is most effective. • "Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat". The classroom climate should be challenging but not threatening to students. • "Each brain is unique". Teaching must be multifaceted to allow students to express preferences.
Pedagogies based on constructivism • Learning is accomplished best using a hands-on approach • Learners learn by experimentation, and not by being told what will happen. They are left to make their own inferences, discoveries and conclusions. • It emphasizes that learning is not an "all or nothing" process but that students learn the new information that is presented to them by building upon knowledge that they already possess. • It is therefore a process of continuous improvement.
Teacher's Role in Pedagogies based on constructivism • To not only observe and assess but also engage with the students while they are completing activities, wondering aloud and posing questions to the students for promotion of reasoning. • To intervene when the conflicts arise; however, they simply facilitate the students' resolutions and self-regulation, with an emphasis on the conflict being the students' and that they must figure things out for themselves. • To encourage the students to write or draw stories of their own, or by having the students reenact a story that they may know well; both activities encourage the students to conceive themselves as reader and writers.
Connectivism “At its heart, connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks.”
Some examples of Scientific Creativity: • The periodic Table • Models of the atomic structure • The double helix model of the DNA
Moving from a mere lecture to the creation of a learning event • It is not enough that a lecture was taken • The learning transactions are more important • Did learning take place? • Did an interest in more learning take place? • Did the learner learn how to learn?
Creating the Eureka moments….. • Designed to lead to moments of enlightenment in which the cognitive conflicts in the minds of the learner are removed, and he exclaims “wow, this is wonderful…I never knew this…isn’t it fascinating…...etc” in a spirit similar to the Eureka moment of Archimedes
Multiple roles of a teacher • must be content expert, • a diagnostician, • a rescuer, • a motivator, • a patient communicator, • a manager and leader, • a student of human behavior.
Learning Styles • Verbal learners • Visual learners • Auditory learners • Kinesthetic learners
The verbal Learner • They learn best with help of written and spoken explanation • They have sensitivity to the meaning, sounds of words • They enjoy story telling and creative writing • They love reading
The verbal Learner….. • They are capable of convincing others for their point of view • They tend to think in words • They do well with written assignments
The visual Learner • They remember best with the help of pictures, diagrams, flow-charts, time lines and demonstrations • They enjoy creating visual patterns and need visual stimulation • They are day dreamers • They have talent for art
The visual Learner • They are more aware of objects, shapes and colours in the environment around them • They are good in reading maps • They tend to think in images and pictures
The auditory Learner • They enjoy playing instruments • They learn easier if things are set to music • They are able to discriminate between various sounds • They enjoy talking to each other • They require explanations of diagrams, graphs or maps
The kinesthetic Learner • They enjoy creative dramatics and dancing • They like expressing themselves with movement and bodily actions • They use gestures and physical movements to learn and solve problems
The kinesthetic Learner… • They take frequent study breaks • Though interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process the information • They have keen sense of body awareness • They find it difficult to sit for long periods of time
Learning Strategies for verbal learners • Take class notes on regular basis • Learn the information in written form • When information is presented in diagrams write out explanations for the information • Write out key sentences and phrases to learn new information
Learning Strategies for verbal learners • When a problem involves a sequence of steps, write out in detail how to do each step • Try to summarise the information to be learned • While revising, always try to write answers or main points
Learning Strategies for visual learners • Use highlighter pens to highlight different kinds of information (colour code) when studying new information in your text-book • Make flash cards of vocabulary words and concepts that need to be memorized. Limit the amount of information per card so that your mind can take the mental visual picture of the information
Learning Strategies for visual learners • Try to learn information with the help of diagrams, illustrations and flow charts • Make and stick notes containing key words and concepts and place them in highly visible places • Use computers to create tables and charts with graphics that help you understand and retain information