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The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System

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The Integumentary System

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  1. The Integumentary System Bio 103 Martini Chapter 5

  2. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight

  3. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts

  4. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands)

  5. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions:

  6. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions: • Protect

  7. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions: • Protect • Excrete salt, water and wastes

  8. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions: • Protect • Excrete salt, water and wastes • maintain body temperature

  9. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions: • Protect • Excrete salt, water and wastes • maintain body temperature • synthesize vitamin D

  10. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions: • Protect • Excrete salt, water and wastes • maintain body temperature • synthesize vitamin D • Store energy (lipids)

  11. The integument (skin) • It’s Large: 1.5 to 2.0 meters2 • 16% of total body weight • 2 main parts • cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis) • accessory structures (hair, nails, exocrine glands) • Functions: • Protect • Excrete salt, water and wastes • maintain body temperature • synthesize vitamin D • Store energy (lipids) • Detect changes in the environment (sensations)

  12. Integument Cutaneous Membrane

  13. Integument Cutaneous Membrane • Epidermis – epithelial cells • Dermis – fibrous connective tissue

  14. Integument Cutaneous Membrane • Epidermis – epithelial cells • Dermis – fibrous connective tissue • Subcutaneous layer (i.e., hypodermis or superficial fascia: composed of adipose and loose areolar CT

  15. Integument Cutaneous Membrane • Epidermis – epithelial cells • Dermis – fibrous connective tissue • Subcutaneous layer (i.e., hypodermis or superficial fascia: composed of adipose and loose areolar CT • not considered part of skin, but interwoven with dermis

  16. Width of epidermis Thick skin: epidermis is thick 5 layered epidermis palms, fingertips, & soles

  17. Width of epidermis Thick skin: epidermis is thick 5 layered epidermis palms, fingertips, & soles Thin skin: epidermis is thin 4 layered epidermis everywhere else

  18. Cell types of Skin Epidermis • Cell types: • keratinocytes • make keratin

  19. Cell types of Skin Epidermis • Cell types: • keratinocytes • make keratin • basal (germinative cells) • stem cells

  20. Cell types of Skin Epidermis • Cell types: • keratinocytes • make keratin • basal (germinative cells) • stem cells • merkel cells • sensitive to touch

  21. Cell types of Skin Epidermis • Cell types: • keratinocytes • make keratin • basal (germinative cells) • stem cells • merkel cells • sensitive to touch • melanocytes • pigment cells

  22. Cell types of Skin Epidermis • Cell types: • keratinocytes • make keratin • basal (germinative cells) • stem cells • merkel cells • sensitive to touch • melanocytes • pigment cells • langerhans cells • immune response

  23. Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum means layer:

  24. Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum means layer: • stratum corneum

  25. Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum means layer: • stratum corneum • stratum lucidum • absent in thin skin

  26. Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum means layer: • stratum corneum • stratum lucidum • absent in thin skin • stratum granulosum

  27. Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum means layer: • stratum corneum • stratum lucidum • absent in thin skin • stratum granulosum • stratum spinosum

  28. Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum means layer: • stratum corneum • stratum lucidum • absent in thin skin • stratum granulosum • stratum spinosum • stratum germinativum

  29. Stratum Germinativum (basale) • Deepest layer (usually single) – attached to dermis

  30. Stratum Germinativum (basale) • Deepest layer (usually single) – attached to dermis • Basal cells most common, rapidly divide to make new keratinocytes:

  31. Stratum Germinativum (basale) • Deepest layer (usually single) – attached to dermis • Basal cells most common, rapidly divide to make new keratinocytes: • basal cells constantly replacing lost keratinocytes • new cells make keratin & die as they approach free surface of the skin

  32. Stratum Germinativum (basale) • Deepest layer (usually single) – attached to dermis • Basal cells most common, rapidly divide to make new keratinocytes: • basal cells constantly replacing lost keratinocytes • new cells make keratin & die as they approach free surface of the skin • 10-25% of cells are melanocytes

  33. Stratum Germinativum (basale) • Deepest layer (usually single) – attached to dermis • Basal cells most common, rapidly divide to make new keratinocytes: • basal cells constantly replacing lost keratinocytes • new cells make keratin & die as they approach free surface of the skin • 10-25% of cells are melanocytes • some merkel cells

  34. Stratum Germinativum (basale) • Deepest layer (usually single) – attached to dermis • Basal cells most common, rapidly divide to make new keratinocytes: • basal cells constantly replacing lost keratinocytes • new cells make keratin & die as they approach free surface of the skin • 10-25% of cells are melanocytes • some merkel cells • forms epidermal ridges

  35. Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer) • 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound together by desmosomes(see pg 110)

  36. Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer) • 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound together by desmosomes(see pg 110) • contains Langerhans’ cells • stimulate immune response

  37. Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer) • 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound together by desmosomes(see pg 110) • contains Langerhans’ cells • stimulate immune response • microorganisms • superficial skin cancers

  38. Stratum Granulosum (grainy layer) • 3-5 layers of keratinocytes • cells have stopped dividing and making large amounts of keratin and keratohyalin

  39. Stratum Granulosum (grainy layer) • 3-5 layers of keratinocytes • cells have stopped dividing and making large amounts of keratin and keratohyalin • As keratin fibers form, cells grow thinner and membranes are less permeable

  40. Stratum Granulosum (grainy layer) • 3-5 layers of keratinocytes • cells have stopped dividing and making large amounts of keratin and keratohyalin • As keratin fibers form, cells grow thinner and membranes are less permeable • keratohyalin forms dense cytoplasmic granules: • promotes dehydration, aggregation, cross-linking of keratin fibers

  41. Stratum Granulosum (grainy layer) • 3-5 layers of keratinocytes • cells have stopped dividing and making large amounts of keratin and keratohyalin • As keratin fibers form, cells grow thinner and membranes are less permeable • keratohyalin forms dense cytoplasmic granules: • promotes dehydration, aggregation, cross-linking of keratin fibers • eventually organelles disintegrate and cells die leaving keratin fibers surrounded by keratohyalin

  42. Stratum Lucidum (clear layer) • Found only in thick skin

  43. Stratum Lucidum (clear layer) • Found only in thick skin • Thin, translucent band consisting of a few rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes

  44. Stratum Lucidum (clear layer) • Found only in thick skin • Thin, translucent band consisting of a few rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes • Keratohyalin granules begin to cling to keratin filaments in the cells causing them to aggregate in parallel fashion

  45. Stratum Corneum (horn layer) • Largest layer:

  46. Stratum Corneum (horn layer) • Largest layer: • 15-30 cell layers of keratinized cells (dead cells with keratin) • ¾ of epidermal thickness

  47. Stratum Corneum (horn layer) • Largest layer: • 15-30 cell layers of keratinized cells (dead cells with keratin) • ¾ of epidermal thickness • keratinization: superficial layers of dead cells are filled with keratin on all exposed surfaces except eyes

  48. Stratum Corneum (horn layer) • Largest layer: • 15-30 cell layers of keratinized cells (dead cells with keratin) • ¾ of epidermal thickness • keratinization: superficial layers of dead cells are filled with keratin on all exposed surfaces except eyes • cells remain tightly interlocked by desmosomes

  49. Stratum Corneum (horn layer) • Largest layer: • 15-30 cell layers of keratinized cells (dead cells with keratin) • ¾ of epidermal thickness • keratinization: superficial layers of dead cells are filled with keratin on all exposed surfaces except eyes • cells remain tightly interlocked by desmosomes • skin cells are shed in sheets, instead of individually

  50. Stratum Corneum (horn layer) • Largest layer: • 15-30 cell layers of keratinized cells (dead cells with keratin) • ¾ of epidermal thickness • keratinization: superficial layers of dead cells are filled with keratin on all exposed surfaces except eyes • cells remain tightly interlocked by desmosomes • skin cells are shed in sheets, instead of individually • Protects against abrasion & water loss